Facade in Ephesus

Facade in Ephesus

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Celsus Library

Situated in the center of the city, in the area immediately adjacent to the agora, the Library was ordered built by T. Julius Aquila, consul in 110 A.D., in honor of his father Celsus Polemeanus, a consul in the year 92 A.D. and proconsul of Asia. Celsus himself was buried in a garland sarcophagus situated in a burial chamber created underneath the building’s basement, which thus also served as a Heroon, a truly unique feature in the classical world, which normally shunned burials in urban areas. Only in exceptional cases was it permitted for particularly meritorious citizens to be buried inside public buildings.

In addition to the library, Julius Aquila also left a bequest of 25,000 denarii, of which 8% was to be used both for the purchase of books and for the coronation of the statues and the sacred ceremonies connected with the cult of the dead.
The library, one of the best preserved of the ancient world, was completed in around 125 A.D.
It consists of a vast room (16.72 x 10.92 meters) with a large apse on the back wall, which probably held the statue of the goddess Athena.

Along the walls of the room are ten niches, framed by columns, which held the shelves for the scrolls the niches were arranged on three levels, with the upper levels accessible by means of small balconies, while a hollow space between the internal and external walls served to insulate and protect the collection from moisture and permit a double passageway to the balconies of the upper levels and to the burial chamber of Celsus below. The ceiling of the room was flat and coffered.

© Photo credits by LWYang under CC-BY-2.0

Externally, the library was preceded by a large staircase, and the façade was decorated with a double row of columns framing niches decorated with marble cornices and used to hold statues of Sophia, Arete, Eunoia, and Episteme (i.e. representing the virtues of Celsus: wisdom, courage, benevolence, and knowledge) – and those of Celsus’s family.

The three doors of the ground floor were aligned with the three windows of the upper level.
The columns, more than a meter away from the façade, almost create a covered portico and give movement and spectacularity to the architecture of the library façade. The architectural decoration is also extremely varied and rich, in particular in the use of acanthus spirals with animated figures inside.

During the late Roman Age, the library’s functions were terminated on the outside steps were placed, around a central niche, a series of slabs carved with bas-reliefs, coming from the so called Parthian Monument (erected at Ephesus in honor of emperor Lucius Verus perhaps to commemorate the Roman victory over the eastern population of Parthians), for the purpose of creating the basin of a nymphaeum for which the library façade itself provided the backdrop for the monumental fountain.

Do you want to know more about the history of Ephesus and Pergamon?

Check out our guidebook to Ephesus and Pergamon, with detailed history and Past & Present images of their greatest historical and archaeological sites.

Where is Ephesus, Turkey?

The other fabulous part of Ephesus is its location. Nestled amid soft green hills dotted with wildflowers, the ancient columns resemble a movie set. The Aegean Sea used to lap right up against the city (how pretty that must have been!), but the waters have since receded due to ancient deforestation and erosion.

There is still swimming nearby, however. Just a 24-minute drive away is Kusadasi: a town with a sparkling azure beach which boasts lovely accommodations, such as the waterfront hotel in which we stayed. Driving, Ephesus, Turkey is about 6.5 hours from Istanbul. To reach this region via air, the flight from Istanbul is just over an hour.

Bright red flowers in front of the rolling green hills around Ephesus.

BLOG The Ancient Ruins of Ephesus City

The Ancient Ruins of Ephesus City, sitting just an hour&rsquos drive from the bustling metropolis of Izmir, is one of Turkey's top tourist attractions, drawing in the crowds daily with its historical timeline that beguiles and amazes travellers from all over the world.

Its well-preserved buildings project unique insights into how past civilisations lived on a day-to-day basis and with a little imagination, anyone can easily understand how such a city endured the ravages of time, invaders and Mother Nature, before ending its glorious reign because of desertion.

History of the Ancient City of Ephesus

Ephesus was an ancient port, built in the 10th Century BC and a major trading centre in Ionian and Romans times. Considered one of the greatest cities of its time, fantastic architecture, such as the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, adorned the streets.

The sight of the Temple of Artemis was the height of any pilgrims trek to the city. The Temple, once the largest building in the Ancient World was built in reverence to the many-breasted goddess, Artemis, or the Lady of Ephesus. Artemis and her twin Apollo were the children of the god of gods, Zeus.

In Biblical times, Ephesus was the home of St John and more importantly, one of the seven churches of Revelation as mentioned in the New Testament of the Bible. It also hosted the Virgin Mary, whose humble house, where she lived her later years, was just a stone's throw from the city, and Alexander the Great, the warrior who was rebuffed from rebuilding the Temple, as locals didn't think it was right that a God should rebuild one for another.

Its significance though didn't come into its own until the Ionian period when it was established as one of the 12 cities of the Ionian League. However, Mother Nature finally put paid to Ephesus' fortunes, with the silting up of the port on the Menderes River, and an earthquake in the 7th century.

Prominent Buildings of Ephesus City

Considered by historians as one of the best preserved Roman sites, second only to Rome itself, many structures and buildings have been excavated and restored to as much of their former glory as possible.

The Celsius Library is one of the most photographed ruins of the entire city given its beautifully inscribed facade dating from 125AD that was restored to its original beauty in a painstaking operation over eight years in the 1970s by German archaeologists. Built initially with his own money by Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, a governor of Roman Asia for the Roman Empire, the library had the capacity to hold 12,000 scrolls.

Completed by his son, Gaius, Celsus was buried beneath the building and the facade survived a devastating earthquake in 262AD, but unfortunately, succumbed to another one centuries later.

To understand the magnificence of the Hellenistic Grand Theatre, imagine a fierce less gladiator looking to the audience of 24,000 spectators from centre stage. Nearby is a graveyard of fighters, victims of the many fights that entertained the large crowds and this underpins the belief that the theatre was an immensely important part of the social fabric of Ephesians. Before it became a gladiatorial arena, it was used for drama and plays, hence, the excellent acoustics that have been used to such great effect in modern times. The theatre dominated views towards Harbour Street and what would have been the city's port.

One of the most impressive, but sometimes overlooked buildings on the site, the Temple of Hadrian harks back to the 2nd Century AD in honour of Emperor Hadrian, who had popped into the city in about 128AD. Although the original reliefs are now housed at the nearby Ephesus Museum, they would have depicted the likes of Emperor Theodosius. The facade features four columns and a relief of the god of victory, Tyche. There are also bases for the statues of Diocletian, Maximian, Constantius I, and Galerius, who reigned between 293 and 305AD.

Constructed in 1st Century BC, wealthy families owned the Roman Terrace houses sitting on a small hillock on the slopes of the Bulbul Mountains. Now covered by transparent roofing, the interiors, adorned with intensely detailed mosaics on the floors and walls, were originally two stories high. These houses were also among the first to have a heating system, with clay pipes carrying hot air beneath the floors and walls, a revolutionary invention for that period of history.

The Marble Road leading to the Grand Theatre dates from the 1st century AD and was adorned with statues of some of the most influential people of the day. Equally, the road features a footprint depicting the way to the brothel, otherwise known as the love house.

Other attractions include the fascinating public latrines, bath complexes that supplied an aqueduct system to the Fountain of Trajan, and the Odeon arena, a smaller version of the Grand Theatre for the city's influential decision-makers.

Any interested traveller with time to spare can also deviate slightly away from the city to visit the nearby attractions. They include the House of the Virgin Mary a humble abode where Mary spent her last few years the Basilica of St John, built over the Apostle's tomb in the nearby town of Selçuk, and The Temple of Artemis. Described as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, this was located within the boundaries walls of the glorious ancient city of Ephesus.

Facade in Ephesus - History

The two-storey marble facade is 17 metres high (including the 9 stairs up to it) and 21 metres wide. It is extravagant in its architectural form, the building materials used and the elaborate sculptures, reliefs and dedicatory inscriptions which appear to have covered just about every square inch.

Most of the surfaces of the facade, apart from the columns, were decorated with reliefs of eagles, mythical scenes (see photo below), patterns of stylized vegetation, including flowers, leaves and scrolling tendrils, as well as conventional motifs such as egg-and-dart, dentils and palmettes. A surprising number of the carved blocks have survived, although many are now in the Ephesos Museum, Vienna. The monolithic shafts of all eight columns were made of expensive purple-veined marble from central Phrygia [1].

As with many ancient marble buildings, the white stone has taken on a patina in hues of yellow, orange and brown over the centuries, and depending to the light, the library facade can appear the colour of honey or amber (see, for example, the Temple of Athena Nike in Athens).

At each side of the wide stairway up to the library was an equestrian statue of Celsus. The inscriptions on the front and one side of both statue bases list his most important official titles, such as consul and proconsul of Asia. The inscription of the left-hand (south) base is in Greek (IvE 5102), and that on the right in Latin (IvE 5103, see photo below). All the other inscriptions on the library facade are in Greek.

A row of four roofed porch areas (aediculae or tabernacles) project from the wall of the ground floor, each supported in front by two columns with composite capitals (a mixture of Ionic and Corinthian elements) and an entablature decorated with reliefs of eagles with outspread wings (see photo below). This arrangement forms a colonnade immediately before the wall and entrances to the building.

The porch roofs in turn support the smaller Corinthian columns of three projecting roofed areas on the first floor. At each end of the upper storey is an extra column (supporting a pier) to match the number of columns on the ground floor.

Between the four lower porches are three doorways into the library itself, the central doorway is taller and wider than the other two. Above each doorway is a large window, with another window directly above it and the entablature of the ground floor.

At the back of each porch two pilasters with composite capitals, the same height as the columns, flank a niche in the wall, framed by two smaller pilasters. In each of the four niches stands a statue with a base inscribed with one of the virtues of Celsus (see photos below).

To the right of the niches were reliefs of fasces, a few of which have survived (see photo right). The fasces was a symbol of a Roman magistrate's power in the form of a bundle of birch rods tied together with a red leather ribbon, with an axe blade projecting from the top. Both Celsus and his son Aquila were entitled to use this symbol since they had achieved the rank of consul.

On the roof of each lower porch stands an inscribed statue base, three of which supported a statue of Celsus, and the fourth a statue of Aquila. The statue in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum (see photos on gallery page 30) may have been one of the four.

It is thought that there were also statues of the nine muses somewhere in or around the library, as a statue of Melpomene, the patron of tragedy, was found outside the building.

The roofs of all seven porches have coffered (square panelled) ceilings. (see photo below). The pediments of the upper porches each has a tympanum decorated with a relief of a Gorgon's head flanked by floral and spiral tendril motifs, and framed along the top by an egg and dart motif (see photo below).

In order to create the optical illusion that the facade was even larger than it is, the height of the columns diminishes gradually from the centre to the ends of the building, and the lines of the facade itself have a slight curvature.

The use of the aedicula as an architectural device originally had religious significance: the Latin word aedicula is the diminutive of aedes, a temple building, as the Greek naiskos (ναΐσκος) is the diminutive of naos (ναός), temple. Images of such temples, or shrines, were used to frame scenes on ancient Greek and Roman reliefs, vases and other art objects depicting religious themes (see for example the "Ninnion Tablet" and a gold relief of Dionysus with a satyr).

The idea of adding colonnaded porches in the form of aediculae to the walls of buildings was developed and spread around the Graeco-Roman world from the time of the first emperors. The skene (scaenae frons, stage building) of the Great Theatre of Ephesus (enlarged circa 50 AD) featured aediculae, as did the Fountain of Trajan (Nymphaeum Traiani), also built by Tiberius Claudius Aristion (see previous page) and his wife around 104 AD, and the skene of the 2nd century Bouleuterion (Odeion).

A number of monumental public buildings in other places, particularly theatres, fountains, triumphal arches and thermae (baths), also had facades in the form of aediculae, for example the Odeion of Herodes Atticus in Athens (160-174 AD) [2], the theatre in Aspendus (161-180 AD), the Nymphaeum of Herodes Atticus in Olympia (around 150 AD), and the Nymphaeum (69-96 AD) and the North Gate of the South Agora of Miletus (120-130 AD). [3]

Theatres were in a sense sacred spaces due their history and association with Dionysus, the nymphaeums featured statues of gods, the families of deified emperors or other heroized dignitaries, and even baths and gymnasia were the province of Hermes and other deities. It appears no accident that the family of Celsus appropriated such architectural language, as well as the reliefs of Dionysus and Apollo, to give divine weight to the library as his tomb and shrine. The facade can also be seen as a grand "Inszenierung", a theatrical presentation.

The reliefs of mythical themes, particularly of Apollo, and the statues of the muses, apart from their direct religious connotations, are all illusions to literature and the arts fitting for a library. It is not known whether Celsus had a particular love of books, although as most high-ranking Roman citizens he would have received a good education, or why he chose to build a library here, rather than some other type of building. Some scholars have speculated that he may have been influenced by other learned persons, perhaps even historian Tacitus (circa 56-120 AD), who was at Ephesus as proconsul of Asia 112-113 AD. Another influence on his decision is thought to have been the establishment of the Bibliotheca Ulpia in Rome by Emperor Trajan in 114 AD.

Statue of "Arete Kelsou" in the niche to the left
of the central doorway to the Library of Celsus.

It is one of four female statues (all copies) which stand in niches on the ground floor, within the colonnade of the library's facade, flanking each of the three doorways (see photos on previous page).

The statues which originally stood in these niches when the building was completed was a female personification of the virtues of Celsus [4], indicated by the Greek inscription on the bases naming them, for example, "Sophia Kelsou" (Wisdom of Celsus):

Arete (ἀρετή) - excellence, moral virtue, diligence, valour

Ennoia (εννοια) - forethought, thoughtfulness, consideration, moral understanding

Episteme (ἐπίσταμαι) - knowledge, learning, erudition.

Modern interpretations and translations of the words for these qualities vary, as they were used differently by ancient authors of different periods, who were influenced by various philosophies and ways of thinking.

It has been pointed out that the nature of these virtues is related to literature and philosophy, and that both Arete and Sophia appear on the "Archelaos relief" of the Apotheosis of Homer. [5] The reliefs of mythical scenes on the facade (see photo below), only a few of which have survived, and statues of the nine muses also point to a literary element in the symbolism of the building's sculptural composition as a whole.

The original statues of the virtues were destroyed along with the libray in 262-263 AD (see gallery page 30). They were later replaced by unrelated statues, including one of Hygeia, which are thought to be 2nd century AD copies of late Hellenistic originals. This means that they do not inform us about the depiction of such virtues in ancient art.

A relief of the mythical hero Bellerephon with the winged horse
Pegasus at the top of a pilaster on the facade of the library.

Two columns supporting the roof the right-most porch of the library's ground floor.

The Greek inscription along the bottom of this entablature is the abbreviated name of "Tiberius Claudius Aristion, 3 times three times Asiarch". Aristion was the executor of Celsus' will after the death of his son Aquila, and was resonsible for the completion of the library. (see the inscription on gallery page 30).

A coffered ceiling of one of the four roofed porches (known as aediculae or tabernacles)
projecting from the wall of the of the ground floor of the library facade. This ceiling is on
the right of the building. Each recessed panel has a sculpted rosette in the centre,
framed on all four sides by an egg-and-art motif.

A cast of one of three reliefs of the head of the Gorgon Medusa
on pediments at the top of the facade of the Library of Celsus.

This Gorgoneion tympanum is on the left-hand (south) pediment. That it is a modern copy is made evident by the contrast to the original white marble fragment fitted into the pediment during the reconstruction of the facade in 1970-1978 (see photo below). The fragmentary reliefs of the other two pediments appear to be original but less complete.

The original tympanum is now in the Ephesos Museum of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
Inv. No. Antikensammlung, I 1632 (at present not on display).
Height 67 cm, width 172 cm, depth 63.5 cm.

Marble from Phrygia was apparently expensive and highly prized. Philostratus wrote that the wealthy Ephesian Sophist Titus Flavius Damianus used "Phrygian marble such as had never before been quarried" to decorate the banqueting hall he had built in the sanctuary of the Temple of Artemis at the end of the second century AD. See Selçuk gallery 1, page 4.

2. Herodes Atticus

Herodes Atticus may have seen and been influenced by the library and theatre of Ephesus or similar buildings in Asia Minor while he was corrector (prefect) of the free cities of Asia Minor, an office to which he was appointed by Emperor Hadrian in 134/135 AD. The Nymphaeum of Herodes Atticus in Olympia had a strong religious aspect as it was decorated with statues of Zeus, the imperial family as well as members of families of Atticus and his wife Aspasia Annia Regilla. He later built the Odeion in Athens to honour his deceased wife.

Like Herodes Atticus, Celsus and Aquila were among the wealthy people from Greek dominated areas of the Roman Empire who thrived under imperial rule (see also Aulus Claudius Charax of Pergamon).

3. Aedicular facades

See: Barbara Burrell, False fronts: separating the aedicular facade from the Imperial cult in Roman Asia Minor. American Journal of Archaeology 110 (2006), pages 437-469.

4. During an earlier visit to Ephesus in 1985, I was told that these figures were the daughters of Celsus, an opinion I heard from more than one person. There is no evidence for this. Still, I can't help thinking of them as "the Celsus girls".

5. The literary virtues of Celsus

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Facade in Ephesus - History

Turkey’s Ancient Metropolis of Ephesus
Greeks, Romans, and Early Christians Speak Through the City’s Stones

From the back row of the Grand Theater, we imagined a scene as it unfurled 2,000 years ago — a noisy, overflowing crowd of 25,000 Ephesians roaring for a favored Roman gladiator battling for his life against a starving lion the high curved walls of the orchestra and the back stage confining the combatants and protecting the audience bustling Arcadiana Way, lined with roofed colonnades and commercial establishments, leading west to the busy harbor in the distance.

My wife and I had joined a small, guided group of fellow travelers for a tour of the ruins of Ephesus, Turkey. The tremendous size of the ancient city and its range of sites had our heads spinning. This ancient metropolis of 150,000 was one of the most important eastern frontier cities of ancient Greece, then later, of the Roman Empire. Perhaps because Ephesus was an Asian province settlement, the Roman occupation preserved much of the original Greek building and influence. It was here that the Roman general, Marc Antony walked hand-in-hand with the Egyptian queen, Cleopatra, down the famous Marble Road. Here, too, the first Christians fled from Jerusalem to start spreading their beliefs, including Apostle John and Paul, author of the Epistles to the Ephesians. It’s no wonder that today’s visitor feels privileged to experience Ephesus’ classic history and grandeur.

Although controlled by the Romans, Ephesus maintained a high degree of independence. St. Paul established a Christian congregation in Ephesus in the 1st century A.D. Then in 262 A.D. the Goths destroyed much of Ephesus, forcing the Romans to rebuild it. In the Byzantine era, when Constantinople overtook Rome’s control of the Roman Empire, the Cayster River silted up Ephesus’ harbor, bringing an end to its importance as a trading port. The declining city was abandoned in the 14th century.

An Amazing Collection of Sites

Archaeological excavations of Ephesus were started in 1863 and continue to this day. The main thoroughfares uniting the city neighborhoods have been excavated, providing a clear, two-mile route through the major sites of Greek and Roman ruins. Two long streets, Curetes and Adriana, run east west through the valley, connected by Marble Road running north south. With the incredible array of sites spanning several centuries, a visit here requires a full day and the services of a good guide.

We found ourselves overcome by the architecture, art, and urban features of ancient Ephesus. Included here are two theaters, two agoras (marketplaces), multiple temples to Greek and Roman gods, a huge library, multiple baths, public latrines with an underground sewer system, a brothel, fountains, gymnasium, stadium, basilica, palaces, an early Christian church dedicated to Virgin Mary, and private homes of rich Ephesian citizens.

Our Turkish guide made Ephesus come alive with her tales of how the city functioned in its heyday. She showed us how the citizens shopped, cooked their meals, and attended the public baths, and even the toilets. She laughed as she showed how the brothel was hidden near the library at the center of town, with "secret" pictorial street signs pointing to the location.

Ancient Cultures Frozen in Time

Athens may have its Acropolis Rome, its Coliseum Pompeii, its temples and homes. While Ephesus’ individual sites may not equal the best of these, its uniqueness lies in its preservation of both the Greek and Roman worlds at the crossroads to Asia. Ephesus is the most significant archaeological area that spans both civilizations, illustrating a period of importance that lasted more than 1,000 years. It highlights very graphically the Greek influence upon the conquering Romans. Thankfully, Ephesus’ history became frozen in time and is now available for all of us as today’s marveled visitors.

Les Furnanz
Photos by Rita Furnanz

Regarded as one of the finest monuments in Ephesus, this fountain was built in honor of Emperor Trajan in 104 AD. The fountain&rsquos pool was surrounded by statues of Dionysus, Satyr, Aphrodite, and members of the Emperor&rsquos family. The statues are now on display at the Ephesus Museum.

One of the most impressive and best-preserved structures in Ephesus, the Temple of Hadrian was built in 118 AD to honor Emperor Hadrian. The facade of the temple has four Corinthian columns supporting a curved arch, in the middle of which contains a relief of Tyche, the goddess of victory.

Notice the empty pedestals? They were once the bases for statues of Diocletian, Maximian, Constantius I, and Galerius &mdash emperors who ruled between 293 and 305 AD. The original statues have not been found yet.

Inside the temple above the door is a human figure, believed to be Medusa standing with ornaments of acanthus leaves. On both sides are friezes depicting the history of Ephesus &mdash Androklos shooting a boar, Dionysus in ceremonial procession, and the Amazons. These friezes are reproductions. The originals are on display at Ephesus Museum.

Illustration of facade of the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, Turkey - stock illustration

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Nymphaeum of Trajan

On the northern side of Curetes Street stands the Nymphaeum of Trajan. According to the inscription on the frieze and the architrave of the lower level, its construction was funded by the asiarch Ti. Claudius Aristion between 102 and 114 A.D., and was dedicated by him to the emperor Trajan.

The monumental fountain consisted of a rectangular basin, surrounded on three sides by a niched façade on two levels of different heights, richly decorated with a columned avant-corps.

The central intercolumniation was topped by a triangular pediment, while the sides were adorned with volutes and the wings with circular pediments.

© Photo credits by shankar s under CC-BY-2.0

The entire façade was enriched by sculptures: Dionysus, Aphrodite, a satyr, statues of the imperial family, etc. The central niche held a colossal marble statue of the emperor Trajan, of which only the base, with part of the inscription, and a few other fragments remain.

Do you want to know more about the history of Ephesus and Pergamon?

Check out our guidebook to Ephesus and Pergamon, with detailed history and Past & Present images of their greatest historical and archaeological sites.

About Ephesus Ancient City

Ephesus, which experienced its most magnificent periods in the Hellenistic and Roman ages, became the capital of the Asian State during the time of the Roman Emperor Augustus and its population exceeded 1 people at that time (2st-200.000nd century BC). In this period, everywhere is equipped with monumental structures made of marble.

With the filling of the harbor in the 4th century, trade declined in Ephesus. Emperor Hadrianus cleaned the port several times. The port is filled with alluviums brought by Marnas Stream and Küçük Menderes river from the north. Ephesus moves away from the sea. In the 7th century, the Arabs attack these shores. Ephesus, which was relocated in the Byzantine period and came to Ayasuluk Hill in Selcuk, where it was first established, was taken by the Turks in 1330. Ayasuluk, which is the center of Aydınoğulları, has started to shrink gradually since the 16th century. Today, there is Selçuk district in the region.

In the frieze at the entrance of the Temple of Hadrianus at the ruins of Ephesus, Ephesus's 3-year-old establishment legend is found with the following sentences: The brave son of Kodros, the king of Athens, Androklos, wants to explore the opposite side of the Aegean. First, he consults with the prophets of the Temple of Apollo in the city of Delfi. The prophets tell him that he will establish a city where the fish and pig point. While Androklos thinks of the meaning of these words, he sails to the dark blue waters of the Aegean… When they come to the bay at the mouth of the Kaystros (Küçük Menderes) River, they decide to go ashore. While cooking the fish they catch by catching fire, a wild boar that comes out of the bushes grabs the fish and escapes. Here is the prophecy. They decide to build a city here…

Ephesus, which was the main gate between East and West, was an important port city. This position enabled Ephesus to develop as the most important political and commercial center of its era and to become the capital of the province of Asia in the Roman Period. Ephesus does not only owe its importance in antiquity to this. The biggest temple of Artemis culture, which is based on the ancient mother goddess (Kybele) tradition of Anatolia, is also located in Ephesus.

Domitian Temple: The temple built in the name of Emperor Domitianus, which is thought to be one of the largest structures in the city, is located opposite the Traianus Fountain. It has been determined that there are columns on the sides of the temple, the foundations of which have reached today. The remains of the statue of Domitianus are the head and an arm.

Temple of Serapis: The Temple of Serapis, one of the most interesting structures of Ephesus, is just behind the Celsus Library. The temple, which was converted into a church in the Christian era, is thought to have been built by the Egyptians. other temple is well known for more as the Temple of Serapis in Bergama by reason of the Seven Churches of Hrsitiyanlık in Turkey.

Church of Our Lady: The Church of the Virgin (Church of the Consultant), where the 431 Council Meeting was held, is the first church built in the name of Mary. It is located to the north of the Harbor Bath. It is among the first Seven Churches in the Christian religion.

St. Basilica of Jean: In the central part of the 6-domed basilica, built by the Byzantine Emperor Great Iustinianus, one of the largest structures of that time, at the bottom, the favorite apostle of Jesus Christ. It is claimed that the grave of Jean (John) was found, but no findings have been found yet. Here in St. There is also a monument erected in the name of Jean. This church, which is considered very important for Christians, is located in Ayasuluk Castle and there is a treasury building and baptistery in the north.

Odeon: Ephesus had a two-chamber administration. One of them, the Advisory Council meetings, was held in this closed structure and concerts were given. It has a capacity of 1.400 people. For this reason, the structure is also called Bouleterion.

Prytaneion (Town Hall): Prytan served as the city's mayor. Its biggest task was to ensure that the city fire, which symbolizes the immortality of the city in this building with thick columns, does not go out. Prytan assumed this task on behalf of the City Goddess Hestia. Around the hall were statues of gods and emperors. Artemis statues in Ephesus museum were found here and later brought to the museum. The buildings next to it were reserved for the official guests of the city.

Marble Street: It is the street that extends from the library square to the theater.

Domitianus Square:To the east of the square, to the north of the Domitianus Temple, is the Pollio Fountain and a building that is thought to be a hospital, and the Memmius Monument is located on the street to the north.

Magnesia Gate (Upper Gate) and East Gymnasium: Ephesus has two entrances. One of them is the Magnesia Gate on the House of Virgin Mary, which is the eastern gate of the city walls around the city. The Eastern Gymnasium is right next to the Magnesia Gate at the foot of Mount Panayır. Gymnasion is the school of the Roman Age.

Heracles Gate: This door, which was built at the end of the Roman Age, turned Kuretler Caddesi into a pedestrian road. The God of Force on the front was named after the Heracles reliefs.

Mazeus Mitridatis (Agora South) Gate: Before the library, it was built in the time of Emperor Augustus. You can go to the Commercial Agora (Lower Agora) through the gate.

Monumental Fountain: The square in front of Odeion is the “State Agora” (Upper Agora) of the city. In the middle of it was the temple of the Egyptian gods (Isis). The Monumental Fountain, built by Laecanus Bassus in 80 BC, is located in the southwestern corner of the State Agora. From here, you can reach the Domitian Square and structures such as the Pollio Fountain, Domitian Temple, Memmius Monument and Heracles Gate clustered around this square.

Hero: It is a fountain built in the name of Androklos, the legendary founder of Ephesus. The front part was changed during the Byzantine period.

Hillside Houses: In the multi-storey houses built on terraces, the rich of the city lived. These houses, which are the most beautiful of the peristyle house type, were in the comfort of modern houses. The walls are covered with marble cladding and frescoes, while the floor is covered with mosaics. All houses have a heating system and a hammam.

Grand Theater: Located at the end of Marble Street, the building is the largest open air theater in the ancient world with a capacity of 24.000 people. The ornate and three-story stage building has been completely destroyed. The sitting steps have three sections. Theater, St. It was the venue for Paul's sermons.

Palace Structure, Stadium Street, Stadium and Gymnasium: The Byzantine palace and part of the street were restored. The horseshoe-shaped Stadium is the place where sporting games and competitions were held in the ancient times. Gladiator games were also performed in the late Roman period. The Vedius Gymnasium next to the stadium is a bath-school complex. Vedius Gymnasium is located at the northern end of the city, right next to the Byzantine walls.

Theater Gymnasium: The courtyard of the large building, which has both a school and a bath function, is open. Here, the marble pieces of the theater are listed for restoration purposes. Agora: It is an area of ​​110 x 110 meters in the middle, surrounded by porticos and shops. Agora was the commercial and cultural center of the city. Agora is the starting point of Marble Street.

Turkish Bath and Public Toilet: It is one of the most important social structures of the Romans. There are cold, warm and hot parts. It was repaired during the Byzantine period. The public toilet structure with a pool in the middle was also used as a gathering place.

Harbor Street: Port Street (Arcadiane Street), which stretches from the Great Theater to the Ancient Port, which is completely filled today, and has marble floors on both sides, is the longest street of Ephesus. Monuments were built on the 600-meter-long street in the city's Christian era. The Four-Column Four Apostles Monument, each with a statue of one of the apostles, is almost in the middle of the street.

Harbor Gymnasium and Harbor Bath: It is a large group of buildings at the end of Liman Caddesi. Some of them have been excavated.

John Fortress: There are glass and water cisterns in the castle. It is the highest point around Ephesus. In addition, the hill where this church is located is the first settlement area of ​​Ephesus Ancient City.

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