Part of B-17 Formation (2 of 6)

Part of B-17 Formation (2 of 6)


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Part of B-17 Formation (2 of 6)

A close-up view of part of a formation of B-17s from the 1st Air Division, probably showing one complete 'V' and this aircraft's wing ship.

Pictures provided by Sgt. Robert S. Tucker Sr. (Member of: The American Air Museum in Britain {Duxford} ).
Robert S. WWII Photo Book, Mighty 8th. AF, Ground Crew


Meet “Doc,” One of Only Two Flying B-29s in the World

On a grassy strip beside the runway at McConnell Air Force Base in Wichita, Kansas, it’s about to get hard to hold a conversation. Four enormous radial engines on the newly restored Boeing B-29 Doc are firing up nearby. It’s July 17, and here—near the site of the factory where the bomber was built in 1944—a crowd of restoration volunteers and assorted VIPs await Doc’s first flight since 1956.

“Being the eternal optimist, I guess I always thought this day would come,” says Tony Mazzolini. He was a regional manager at Continental Airlines until retiring in 2008, and spent spare time on the board of a Cleveland air museum as well as founding a local Commemorative Air Force chapter. Fifi, the CAF’s perennial airshow star, was the sole flying example of the superlative Boeing species that darkened the skies over Japan and ended a world war. The idea of a second, Ohio-based Superfortress to galvanize crowds hounded Mazzolini. “I have a love affair with this particular airplane,” he says.

In the 1950s, Mazzolini had been a U.S. Air Force flight engineer in North American B-25s, flying cold war electronic countermeasures (ECM) missions off the East Coast. He recalls seeing B-29s flown during that era for ECM too. Once, at Griffiss Air Force Base in New York, he even glimpsed a B-29 squadron nicknamed “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs,” which included a B-29 named Doc. Some 30 years later, Mazzolini’s goal became finding a B-29—any B-29—that could be restored to flying condition. It would become an all-consuming quest that stretched across decades.

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This story is a selection from the November issue of Air & Space magazine

Worst-case assumptions, circa 1940: Hitler occupies the entire European continent the fall of Britain is a fait accompli. The first responder is the four-engine Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, but that was 1930s tech in a 1940s war. The U.S. Army Air Corps requires a state-of-the-art high-altitude bomber with a max speed of 350 mph, multiples of B-17 bomb tonnage, and an arm long enough to pound Germany when launching from off-continent bases. In the official Air Corps requirement issued to aircraft manufacturers for a superbomber, the wording is “hemispheric defense weapon.”

By mid-1942, however, War Department forecasts are more optimistic, predicting Germany’s probable collapse around autumn 1944, give or take. Moreover, the vast numbers of B-17s and Consolidated B-24s available for its Combined Bomber Offensive plan are declared mission-worthy, thank you. From that point forth in B-29 concept and construction, the only intended target was Japan.

“The first place I was told to look,” recalls Mazzolini, “was Disney Studios, believe it or not. They had acquired several B-29s as movie props.” As he only belatedly discovered, Disney’s last B-29 had starred in The Last Flight of Noah’s Ark, which premiered in 1980. Mazzolini hadn’t seen the movie, in which a B-29 is converted into a boat to transport animals. “It had been flipped upside down, had both wings cut off, and the fuselage floated out into the Pacific Ocean in Hawaii,” he says. Now what?

Mazzolini set his sights on a more auspicious supply: the Naval Ordnance Test Station at California’s China Lake. In the 1950s, surplus B-29s had been dragged into the Mojave Desert bombing range for aerial ballistic target practice. Mazzolini knew China Lake was where Fifi had been rescued in the early 󈨊s. However, Navy officials answered his inquiries with repeated assurances that all of the range’s B-29s had either taken direct hits or been fed into an enormous metal shredder and reduced to recycle-friendly fragments.

“I always doubted that,” says Mazzolini. “I’d seen the records. I knew that at least 100 B-29s had been taken out there.”

After a flurry of phone calls, a range custodian finally provided the evidence Mazzolini had been longing for: An aerial photograph of a sole Superfortress in mostly one piece, wasting in the California sun.

So pressing was the need for a long-range superbomber to attack Japan, the U.S. Army Air Forces had taken the unheard-of step of ordering 250 B-29s while the airplane was still only a plywood mock-up in Seattle. Before the first XB-29 prototype had even flown, Boeing factories in Wichita Renton, Washington Marietta, Georgia and Omaha, Nebraska, were already tooling up for mass production. Each of the nearly 4,000 Superforts manufactured incorporated 55,000 discrete part numbers, miles of wiring, and thousands of rivets.

Connie Palacioz, age 92, has kept track of hers. “All my rivets are still there, except for seven,” she assures me, pointing proudly toward Doc on the runway apron. Palacioz means the fasteners she personally installed over 70 years ago. As a teenage assembly line worker at Boeing’s Wichita Plant 2, she riveted her way from the forward pressure bulkhead to the nose of hundreds of Superforts, including Doc. “I think we were turning out three B-29s a day towards the end,” she says.

More than a half-century after she helped construct the bomber, Palacioz joined a group of volunteers called Doc’s Friends to help reconstruct it. “When the plane first arrived, it came with hundreds of loose parts,” says Palacioz. “I had to polish each one so we could read the old serial numbers. I had to clean out the inside—it was really terrible. Then I worked on sorting out blueprints that were all mixed up.”

The Superfortress was one of the United States’ most expensive weapons program during World War II, and no American aircraft approached the innovation it incorporated. “It was the Cadillac of the war,” says William Greene, one of the B-29 vets here to witness Doc’s first flight. “It was a heated, pressurized cabin, and you could wear whatever you had on—just a T-shirt if you wanted. You didn’t have to wear bulky suits that restricted your movements.” At 19, Greene was a central fire control gunner on raids targeting Japan.

Early missions were the high-altitude operations the bomber was designed for. To sharpen bombing accuracy, however, General Curtis LeMay, at the time head of the 21st Bomber Command, ordered the Superforts down as low as 5,000 feet. “He was trying to get us killed is what he was doing,” Greene laughs. “We didn’t like that at all. We thought we’d be staying up at 35,000 feet, where nobody could get us.”


The 9th Cavalry Regiment

The mustering of the 9th Cavalry took place in New Orleans, Louisiana, in August and September of 1866. The soldiers spent the winter organizing and training until they were ordered to San Antonio, Texas, in April 1867. There they were joined by most of their officers and their commanding officer, Colonel Edward Hatch.

Training the inexperienced and mostly uneducated soldiers of the 9th Calvary was a challenging task. But the regiment was willing, able and mostly ready to face anything when they were ordered to the unsettled landscape of West Texas.

The soldiers’ main mission was to secure the road from San Antonio to El Paso and restore and maintain order in areas disrupted by Native Americans, many of whom were frustrated with life on Indian reservations and broken promises by the federal government. The Black soldiers, facing their own forms of discrimination from the U.S. government, were tasked with removing another minority group in that government’s name.


The First Cell

It appears that life first emerged at least 3.8 billion years ago, approximately 750 million years after Earth was formed (Figure 1.1). How life originated and how the first cell came into being are matters of speculation, since these events cannot be reproduced in the laboratory. Nonetheless, several types of experiments provide important evidence bearing on some steps of the process.

Figure 1.1

Time scale of evolution. The scale indicates the approximate times at which some of the major events in the evolution of cells are thought to have occurred.

It was first suggested in the 1920s that simple organic molecules could form and spontaneously polymerize into macromolecules under the conditions thought to exist in primitive Earth's atmosphere. At the time life arose, the atmosphere of Earth is thought to have contained little or no free oxygen, instead consisting principally of CO2 and N2 in addition to smaller amounts of gases such as H2, H2S, and CO. Such an atmosphere provides reducing conditions in which organic molecules, given a source of energy such as sunlight or electrical discharge, can form spontaneously. The spontaneous formation of organic molecules was first demonstrated experimentally in the 1950s, when Stanley Miller (then a graduate student) showed that the discharge of electric sparks into a mixture of H2, CH4, and NH3, in the presence of water, led to the formation of a variety of organic molecules, including several amino acids (Figure 1.2). Although Miller's experiments did not precisely reproduce the conditions of primitive Earth, they clearly demonstrated the plausibility of the spontaneous synthesis of organic molecules, providing the basic materials from which the first living organisms arose.

Figure 1.2

Spontaneous formation of organic molecules. Water vapor was refluxed through an atmosphere consisting of CH4, NH3, and H2, into which electric sparks were discharged. Analysis of the reaction products revealed the formation of a variety of organic molecules, (more. )

The next step in evolution was the formation of macromolecules. The monomeric building blocks of macromolecules have been demonstrated to polymerize spontaneously under plausible prebiotic conditions. Heating dry mixtures of amino acids, for example, results in their polymerization to form polypeptides. But the critical characteristic of the macromolecule from which life evolved must have been the ability to replicate itself. Only a macromolecule capable of directing the synthesis of new copies of itself would have been capable of reproduction and further evolution.

Of the two major classes of informational macromolecules in present-day cells (nucleic acids and proteins), only the nucleic acids are capable of directing their own self-replication. Nucleic acids can serve as templates for their own synthesis as a result of specific base pairing between complementary nucleotides (Figure 1.3). A critical step in understanding molecular evolution was thus reached in the early 1980s, when it was discovered in the laboratories of Sid Altman and Tom Cech that RNA is capable of catalyzing a number of chemical reactions, including the polymerization of nucleotides. RNA is thus uniquely able both to serve as a template for and to catalyze its own replication. Consequently, RNA is generally believed to have been the initial genetic system, and an early stage of chemical evolution is thought to have been based on self-replicating RNA molecules𠅊 period of evolution known as the RNA world. Ordered interactions between RNA and amino acids then evolved into the present-day genetic code, and DNA eventually replaced RNA as the genetic material.

Figure 1.3

Self-replication of RNA. Complementary pairing between nucleotides (adenine [A] with uracil [U] and guanine [G] with cytosine [C]) allows one strand of RNA to serve as a template for the synthesis of a new strand with the complementary sequence.

The first cell is presumed to have arisen by the enclosure of self-replicating RNA in a membrane composed of phospholipids (Figure 1.4). As discussed in detail in the next chapter, phospholipids are the basic components of all present-day biological membranes, including the plasma membranes of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The key characteristic of the phospholipids that form membranes is that they are amphipathic molecules, meaning that one portion of the molecule is soluble in water and another portion is not. Phospholipids have long, water-insoluble (hydrophobic) hydrocarbon chains joined to water-soluble (hydrophilic) head groups that contain phosphate. When placed in water, phospholipids spontaneously aggregate into a bilayer with their phosphate-containing head groups on the outside in contact with water and their hydrocarbon tails in the interior in contact with each other. Such a phospholipid bilayer forms a stable barrier between two aqueous compartments𠅏or example, separating the interior of the cell from its external environment.

Figure 1.4

Enclosure of self-replicating RNA in a phospholipid membrane. The first cell is thought to have arisen by the enclosure of self-replicating RNA and associated molecules in a membrane composed of phospholipids. Each phospholipid molecule has two long hydrophobic (more. )

The enclosure of self-replicating RNA and associated molecules in a phospholipid membrane would thus have maintained them as a unit, capable of self-reproduction and further evolution. RNA-directed protein synthesis may already have evolved by this time, in which case the first cell would have consisted of self-replicating RNA and its encoded proteins.


Origins

The ITO was initially envisaged, along with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, as one of the key pillars of post-World War II reconstruction and economic development. In Havana in 1948, the UN Conference on Trade and Employment concluded a draft charter for the ITO, known as the Havana Charter, which would have created extensive rules governing trade, investment, services, and business and employment practices. However, the United States failed to ratify the agreement. Meanwhile, an agreement to phase out the use of import quotas and to reduce tariffs on merchandise trade, negotiated by 23 countries in Geneva in 1947, came into force as the GATT on January 1, 1948.

Although the GATT was expected to be provisional, it was the only major agreement governing international trade until the creation of the WTO. The GATT system evolved over 47 years to become a de facto global trade organization that eventually involved approximately 130 countries. Through various negotiating rounds, the GATT was extended or modified by numerous supplementary codes and arrangements, interpretations, waivers, reports by dispute-settlement panels, and decisions of its council.

During negotiations ending in 1994, the original GATT and all changes to it introduced prior to the Uruguay Round were renamed GATT 1947. This set of agreements was distinguished from GATT 1994, which comprises the modifications and clarifications negotiated during the Uruguay Round (referred to as “Understandings”) plus a dozen other multilateral agreements on merchandise trade. GATT 1994 became an integral part of the agreement that established the WTO. Other core components include the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which attempted to supervise and liberalize trade the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which sought to improve protection of intellectual property across borders the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes, which established rules for resolving conflicts between members the Trade Policy Review Mechanism, which documented national trade policies and assessed their conformity with WTO rules and four plurilateral agreements, signed by only a subset of the WTO membership, on civil aircraft, government procurement, dairy products, and bovine meat (though the latter two were terminated at the end of 1997 with the creation of related WTO committees). These agreements were signed in Marrakech, Morocco, in April 1994, and, following their ratification, the contracting parties to the GATT treaty became charter members of the WTO. By the 2020s the WTO had more than 160 members.


A World War II B-17 Bomber Pilot Remembers His Bombing Run Over Nazi Germany

Key point: The “Bloody 100th,” so nicknamed because of the large number of losses it suffered, flew 306 missions during the war and lost 177 B-17 bombers to antiaircraft guns and Luftwaffe fighters.

“Our mission was Berlin. We flew in that dreaded position—last and lowest in the squadron.”

Archie Mathosian, B-17 Radio Operator, A/C #521 (Skyway Chariot), 100th Bomb Group (H), USAAF

“Last and lowest in the squadron.”These words may not mean much to most readers, but to the crew of a Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress flying over enemy territory during World War II, they meant almost certain death at 20,000 feet above the ground. Flying in the dreaded “Tail-End Charlie” position meant your bomber was at the end and bottom of the heavy bomber formation and extremely vulnerable to attacks by swift enemy fighters bearing down for a kill.

The German Luftwaffe anticipated when and where strategic bombers would drop explosives and anxiously planned for their arrival. Odds were good that they would destroy at least a few B-17s even though they would also suffer injuries and death.

On Sunday morning, March 18, 1945, under an unusually clear sky, the U.S. Eighth Air Force mounted one of its largest air raids against Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich. The target was Berlin, capital of the Nazi regime. More than 1,300 heavy bombers from the Eighth Air Force, escorted by more than 600 fighter planes, departed their bases in East Anglia and flew eastward over the English Channel toward Germany. The payload that morning was more than 650 tons of 1,000-pound bombs.

Major Marvin Bowman commanded the 351sr Bomb Squadron, 100th Bomb Group, on its final mission to Berlin.

In one of those 72 B-17s, named Skyway Chariot, was my uncle, Archie Mathosian. Archie had volunteered for the U.S. Army Air Forces (USAAF) in January 1943. The next month he received basic training in Miami, Florida, followed by radio operator school in South Dakota and gunnery school in Yuma, Arizona.

As a radio operator, Archie sat just behind the B-17’s bomb bay and in front of the waist section of the Flying Fortress. He was primarily responsible for assisting the navigator and communicating with other planes in the formation.

Radio operators on B-17s also managed cameras and sometimes manned a .50-caliber machine gun located in a turret above their heads during periods of combat. They were isolated from the rest of the crew in the midsection of the plane and had restricted views when battles raged outside.

After gunnery school, Archie was assigned to a B-17 stationed at the RAF base Thorpe Abbotts in Norfolk County, eastern England. Construction of the airfield had begun in 1942 for the Royal Air Force however, when America entered the war, the base quickly filled up with heavy bombers from the USAAF. The 100th Bombardment Group (Heavy) arrived at RAF Thorpe Abbotts on June 9, 1943, from Kearney Army Airfield, Nebraska, as part of the Eighth Air Force’s strategic bombing campaign.

From RAF Thorpe Abbotts, Archie and the rest of the crew flew 13 to 17 missions without an incident, mostly in a B-17 named Heavenly Days. During their last fateful mission on March 18, 1945, they were manning a B-17G named Skyway Chariot (aircraft number 43-37521) because Heavenly Dayshad been damaged and was under repair.

The crew of Skyway Chariot that day had been together for many months and were “old hands” at the aerial warfare game. In addition to Archie, the crew consisted of pilot 1st Lt. Rollie C. King co-pilot Lieutenant John S. “Jack” Williams navigator Lieutenant John Spencer nose gunner and bombardier Frank Gordon flight engineer Ray E. Wilding ball turret gunner Robert G. Mitchell waist gunner Meyer Gitlin and tail gunner James D. Baker. (A B-17 normally had two waist gunners, but on the March 18 mission, only one was assigned to Skyway Chariot.)

On strategic bombing missions over enemy territory, Allied bombers flew in large, orderly groups for better protection from flak and enemy fighter planes. A formation called a“combat box” or “staggered formation”was designed for this purpose, and it served two functions: offense and defense.

When on the offensive, the purpose of the combat box was simply the massed release of bombs over a target. The defensive posture involved the use of firepower from the bombers’ array of .50-caliber machine guns to ward off enemy fighter planes. Combat boxes typically consisted of 18, 27, 36, or 54 heavy bombers.

Three boxes completed a basic combat box group, although there were several variations used during the war. The basic formation consisted of a lead element, high element, and low element.

The theory behind the box formation concept was logical. B-17s would be protected by “interlocking” .50-caliber machine-gun fire, thereby allowing the Flying Fortresses to defend against enemy planes during daylight raids without the necessity of being escorted by Allied fighters. The combat box formation was used until the end of the war, even though this type of formation did have some disadvantages.

A serious shortcoming was that the lowermost and uppermost bombers had the least protection they had the fewest number of bombers and machine guns covering them. Enemy fighters easily recognized their vulnerability and attacked the highest and lowest bombers first. “Tail-End Charlies” were picked off, and then the main body of the formation was attacked.

With the low element there was also the unfortunate possibility that bombs dropped from above would hit your plane below because formations always started out orderly but sometimes in the heat of combat became disarrayed.

On other occasions, simple human error could cause a bomber to move out of the formation and into harm’s way. One famous example that was caught on camera involved a B-17 on a bombing run on May 19, 1944, over Berlin. The mishap occurred when a bomber from above dropped a bomb onto a B-17 flying below and damaged one of its stabilizers, causing it to crash. Interestingly, the enemy is also known to have dropped bombs onto the orderly and predictable B-17 combat box formations.

Just after 5 am on March 18, 1945, the large formation of 1,327 B-17s and Consolidated B-24 Liberators was assembling over London for Mission 282. At its base in Germany, fighter wing Jagdgeschwader 7 (JG 7) Nowotny (later renumbered III./JG 7) went on alert, preparing for the onslaught. This wing was equipped with 50 Me-262 fighters. The probable target, the wing commander was informed, was Berlin.

Bombing runs deep into Germany’s heartland could last eight hours or more and were typically met by heavy resistance from fighter planes and flak. Germany’s military pilots flew against the invading force in Messerschmitt Bf-109s, Focke-Wulf FW-190s and the new jet-powered Messerschmitt Me-262s.

Entering service near the end of the war, the faster and more powerful Me-262 Schwalbe(“Swallow”), was the most advanced fighter plane of World War II. It has been suggested that if the Me-262 had been introduced in greater numbers earlier in the war, it may have decisively impacted the outcome of many air battles in favor of Germany.

Twenty-four deadly R4M (Rakete, 4 kilogramm, Minenkopf) missiles were attached beneath the wings of each Me-262 on specially designed wooden racks fitted with sliding lugs to hang freely from guided rails. When fired, these missiles traveled up to 1,700 feet per second and packed a 1.1-pound, impact-fused warhead. The missiles could easily vaporize a bomber. To some military historians, the use of the R4M missiles, nicknamed Orkan (Hurricane), was simply overkill.

As one would expect, the Me-262 was highly regarded by Germany’s Luftwaffe aces because it outclassed all other fighters of the period. It had a speed advantage, an excellent climb rate, and firepower consisting of four 30mm cannons in the nose.

By March 1945, almost all Allied air raids included at least 1,000 heavy bombers. During the March 18 bombing raid, a fierce defense was exhibited to protect Berlin, where Adolf Hitler and other Nazi elite were hunkered down.

Before the bombers reached Berlin, Me-262s were scrambled to attack the B-17s and North American P-51 Mustang fighters escorting the Flying Fortresses. This would be the largest attack by Me-262 jets and piston-engine fighter planes against Allied bombers during the entire war.

Just before reaching Berlin, the B-17s of the 100th BG encountered heavy bursts of flak from German 88mm and 105mm antiaircraft guns. Skyway Chariot took enemy fire shortly after turning on the mission’s initial point (IP)––the last leg of a bomb run when planes turn in a direction that takes them over their target. The IP was typically about 10 miles from the target over a highly visible landmark so navigators could get a fix on their positions.

Then the antiaircraft guns went silent to allow swarms of deadly Luftwaffe fighter planes to do their work from close range. Thirty-seven fighter planes, including Me-262s, engaged the massive force of Flying Fortresses and escorting fighters. Luftwaffe pilots were determined to protect their capital from the enemy bombers.

The attack began at about 11:09 am with seven Me-262s firing 30mm Mk 108 cannons at the invading force. A private company in Germany specifically designed these cannons for use against heavy aircraft, and they were installed on a variety of German fighter planes. The cannons were well suited for the role, firing high-explosive ammunition that could bring down a B-17 or B-24 with four to five shots.


History

As late as the mid-1930s, nine out of 10 rural homes were without electric service. The farmer milked his cows by hand in the dim light of a kerosene lantern. His wife was a slave to the wood range and washboard.

The unavailability of electricity in rural areas kept their economies entirely and exclusively dependent on agriculture. Factories and businesses, of course, preferred to locate in cities where electric power was easily acquired. For many years, power companies ignored the rural areas of the nation.

The first official action of the federal government pointing the way to the present rural electrification program came with the passage of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Act in May 1933. This act authorized the TVA Board to construct transmission lines to serve “farms and small villages that are not otherwise supplied with electricity at reasonable rates.”

Rural Electrification Administration

The idea of providing federal assistance to accomplish rural electrification gained ground rapidly when President Roosevelt took office in 1933. On May 11, 1935, Roosevelt signed Executive Order No. 7037 establishing the Rural Electrification Administration (REA). It was not until a year later that the Rural Electrification Act was passed and the lending program that became the REA got underway.

Within months, it became evident to REA officials that established investor-owned utilities were not interested in using federal loan funds to serve sparely populated rural areas. But loan applications from farmer-based cooperatives poured in, and REA soon realized electric cooperatives would be the entities to make rural electrification a reality.

In 1937, the REA drafted the Electric Cooperative Corporation Act, a model law that states could adopt to enable the formation and operation of not-for-profit, consumer-owned electric cooperatives.

Rapid Growth

Within four years following the close of the World War II, the number of rural electric systems in operation doubled, the number of consumers connected more than tripled and the miles of energized line grew more than five-fold. By 1953, more than 90 percent of U.S. farms had electricity.

Today, about 99 percent of the nation’s farms have electric service. Most rural electrification is the product of locally owned rural electric cooperatives that got their start by borrowing funds from REA to build lines and provide service on a not-for-profit basis. REA is now the Rural Utilities Service, or RUS, and is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Co-op Growth Over Time

The Birth of NRECA

False claims that electric cooperatives were hoarding copper wire during World War II brought cooperative leaders from different states together to defend themselves. As a result, in 1942, America’s electric cooperatives formed the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) to provide a unified voice for cooperatives and to represent their interests in Washington, DC.

Today, NRECA represents more than 900 consumer-owned, not-for-profit electric cooperatives, public power districts, and public utility districts in the United States. The Arlington, Va.-based national service organization oversees cooperative employee benefits plans carries out federal government relations activities like lobbying conducts management and director training and spearheads communications, advocacy, and public relations initiatives. In addition, it coordinates national and regional conferences and seminars offers member cooperatives advice on tax, legal, environmental, and engineering matters and performs economic and technical research.

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CSWIP 3.1: Question with Answer and Explanation – Part 17

300 Series austenitic stainless steel has austenite as its primary phase (face centered cubic crystal). These are alloys containing chromium and nickel, and sometimes molybdenum and nitrogen, structured around the Type 302 composition of iron, 18% chromium, and 8% nickel. 200 Series austenitic stainless steels replace the majority of their nickel content with manganese to reduce cost. Austenitic steels are not hardenable by heat treatment.

2) The higher the alloy content of steels:

a. The lower the tendency for HICC to occur
b. ( answer ) The higher the tendency for HICC to occur
c. High alloy steels do not influence HICC susceptible
d. None of the above

3) Which one of these statements is true concerning solidification cracking?

a. Only occurs in MMA welding
b. ( answer ) Increased depth to width ratio will increase stress
c. Never occurs in MIG/MAG welding
d. All of the above

Solidification Cracking (hot crack) can occur when:

-Weld metal has a high carbon or impurity (sulphur) content

-The depth-to-width ratio of the solidifying weld bead is large (deep & narrow)

4) A solidification crack normally occurs where?

a. Through the HAZ
b. (answer) Longitudinal through the weld centre line
c. Transverse through the weld
d. Can occur anywhere

5) Weld decay is caused by the formation of a compound with carbon. The other element in this compound is:

a. Manganese
b. Sulphur
c. (answer) Chromium
d. Nickel

Occurs when:

An area in the HAZ has been sensitised by the formation of chromium carbides. This area is in the form of a line running parallel to and on both sides of the weld. This depletion of chromium will leave the effected grains low in chromium oxide which is what produces the corrosion resisting effect of stainless steels. If left untreated corrosion and failure will be rapid.

6) The directions of shrinkage in a welded joint are:

a. Transverse and diagonal
b. Transverse, short transverse and conical
c. (answer) Transverse, short transverse and longitudinal
d. Angular, diagonal and transgranular

7) In a single pass weld, the width of the zone in which longitudinal residual stresses are …

a. Independent of the weld width
b. Narrower than the weld metal
c. The same width as the weld metal
d. ( answer ) Wider than the weld metal and the heat affected zone

8) What does the term “back-step” refer to during welding?

a. A QA term referring to inspection points
b. Use of step wedges on the root of the joint
c. Use of step wedges for radiography
d. (answer) A weld run sequence

9) Sequential welding is referred to with reference to which of the following?

a. (answer) Distortion
b. Residual stress
c. Fatigue life
d. Not associated with any of the above

10) A typical temperature for stress relieving C-Mn steel weldmet is:

a. (answer) 580oC – 620oC
b. 5000oC – 6200oC
c. 75oC – 80oC
d. 1500oC – 1800oC

11) A typical temperature for normalising C-Mn steel is:

a. Approximately 200oC
b. Approximately 300oC
c. (answer) Approximately 900oC
d. Approximately 1200oC

12) A maximum interpass temperature is generally given to control:


Report details final minutes of doomed B-17 flight

This image taken from video provided by National Transportation Safety Board shows damage from a World War II-era B-17 bomber plane that crashed Wednesday at Bradley International Airport, Thursday, Oct. 3, 2019 in Windsor Locks, Conn. The plane crashed and burned after experiencing mechanical trouble on takeoff Wednesday morning from Bradley International Airport. (NTSB via AP)

This image taken from video provided by National Transportation Safety Board shows damage from a World War II-era B-17 bomber plane that crashed Wednesday at Bradley International Airport, Thursday, Oct. 3, 2019 in Windsor Locks, Conn. The plane crashed and burned after experiencing mechanical trouble on takeoff Wednesday morning from Bradley International Airport. (NTSB via AP)

4 of 32 Buy Photo A jet takes off from Bradley International Airport passing the wreckage of a vintage WWII B-17 Bomber, the Nine O Nine, which crashed at the end of a runway at the airport in Windsor Locks, Conn, on Wednesday morning, October 2, 2019. Hearst Connecticut Media/H John Voorhees III Show More Show Less

5 of 32 A vintage WWII aircraft wreckage lays off a runway at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Conn, on Wednesday morning. The aircraft crashed as it attempted to land after reporting trouble. The aircraft was reported to have three crew members and 10 passengers aboard and officials have confirmed multiple fatalities in the Wednesday morning crash. Wednesday, October 2, 2019. H John Voorhees III/Hearst Connecticut Media Show More Show Less

7 of 32 A vintage WWII aircraft wreckage lays off a runway at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Conn, on Wednesday morning. The aircraft crashed as it attempted to land after reporting trouble. The aircraft was reported to have three crew members and 10 passengers aboard and officials have confirmed multiple fatalities in the Wednesday morning crash. Wednesday, October 2, 2019. H John Voorhees III/Hearst Connecticut Media Show More Show Less

The tail section and part of the fuselage can bee seen of a vintage WWII aircraft that crashed while attempting to land at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Conn, on Wednesday morning, October 2, 2019.

H John Voorhees III/Hearst Connecticut Media Show More Show Less

10 of 32 A jet taxis past emergency vehicles after landing at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Conn, on Wednesday morning. A vintage WWII aircraft crashed as it attempted to land after reporting trouble on Wednesday morning. October 2, 2019. H John Voorhees III/Hearst Connecticut Media Show More Show Less

11 of 32 Buy Photo A jet takes off from Bradley International Airport passing the wreckage of vintage WWII aircraft that crashed at the end of a runway at the airport in Windsor Locks, Conn, on Wednesday morning, October 3, 2019. H John Voorhees III/Hearst Connecticut Media Show More Show Less

13 of 32 A vintage WWII aircraft wreckage lays off a runway at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Conn, on Wednesday morning. The aircraft crashed as it attempted to land after reporting trouble. The aircraft was reported to have three crew members and 10 passengers aboard and officials have confirmed multiple fatalities in the Wednesday morning crash. October 2, 2019. H John Voorhees III/Hearst Connecticut Media Show More Show Less

14 of 32 A vintage WWII aircraft wreckage lays off a runway at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Conn, on Wednesday morning. The aircraft crashed as it attempted to land after reporting trouble. The aircraft was reported to have three crew members and 10 passengers aboard and officials have confirmed multiple fatalities in the Wednesday morning crash. Wednesday, October 2, 2019. H John Voorhees III/Hearst Connecticut Media Show More Show Less

16 of 32 A vintage WWII aircraft wreckage lays off a runway at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Conn, on Wednesday morning. The aircraft crashed as it attempted to land after reporting trouble. The aircraft was reported to have three crew members and 10 passengers aboard and officials have confirmed multiple fatalities in the Wednesday morning crash. Wednesday, October 2, 2019. H John Voorhees III/Hearst Connecticut Media Show More Show Less

17 of 32 Emergency vehicles parked on the tarmac after a vintage WWII aircraft crashed as it attempted to land after reporting trouble on Wednesday morning at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Conn, on Wednesday morning. A . October 2, 2019. H John Voorhees III/Hearst Connecticut Media Show More Show Less

19 of 32 Buy Photo A jet takes off from Bradley International Airport passing the wreckage of a vintage WWII B-17 Bomber, the Nine O Nine, which crashed at the end of a runway at the airport in Windsor Locks, Conn, on Wednesday morning, October 2, 2019. Hearst Connecticut Media/H John Voorhees III Show More Show Less

The Wings of Freedom Tour flew into Ellington field Thursday, featuring rare restored WWII airplanes including the B-17 Flying Fortress "Nine O Nine" Bomber.

Second to land was the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress “Nine O Nine” WWII Heavy Bomber as part of the Wings of Freedom Tour will be on display at Boeing Field/King County International Airport in Seattle, located at The Museum of Flight in Seattle, on Friday June 20, 2008. (Photo/Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Gilbert W. Arias)

Nose art on the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress “Nine O Nine” WWII Heavy Bomber for visitors after it landed, part of the Wings of Freedom Tour will be on display at Boeing Field/King County International Airport in Seattle, located at The Museum of Flight in Seattle, on Friday June 20, 2008.(Photo/Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Gilbert W. Arias)

Pilots Mac McCauley and Jim Harley taxi the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress “Nine O Nine” WWII Heavy Bomber it landed as part of the Wings of Freedom Tour will be on display at Boeing Field/King County International Airport in Seattle, located at The Museum of Flight in Seattle, on Friday June 20, 2008. .(Photo/Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Gilbert W. Arias)

A Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress "Nine-O-Nine" on display in 2010 at Sikorsky Memorial Airport in Stratford. The aircraft was part of the "Wings of Freedom Tour" presented by the Collings Foundation. The aircraft crashed Wednesday at Bradley International Airport, killing at least seven people.

Hearst Connecticut Media file photo Show More Show Less

Visitors line up to board the B-17 Flying Fortress "Nine O Nine", part of the Wings of Freedom tour of vintage World War II planes visiting Sikorsky Airport in Stratford in 2017. The planes will be open to the public from 9 am to 5 pm on Wednesday and Thursday and from 9 am to 12 pm on Friday.

Brian A. Pounds / Hearst Connecticut Media Show More Show Less

Visitors line up to climb aboard the B-17 Flying Fortress "Nine O Nine", part of the Wings of Freedom tour of vintage World War 2 planes visiting Sikorsky Airport in Stratford, Conn. on Tuesday, September 5, 2017. The planes will be open to the public from 9 am to 5 pm on Wednesday and Thursday and from 9 am to 12 pm on Friday.

Brian A. Pounds / Hearst Connecticut Media Show More Show Less

The B-17 Flying Fortress, nick named "Nine O Nine", sits on the tarmac at Sikorsky Airport in Stratford after landing Tuesday, Sept. 5, 2006.

Ned Gerard / Hearst Connecticut Media Show More Show Less

A National Transportation Safety Board preliminary report on the B-17 Flying Fortress crash that killed seven and injured seven others at Bradley International Airport this month indicates the plane may have been late to receive a required inspection and the pilot likely tried to mitigate at least one failed engine before the warbird went down.

The initial report released Tuesday by the NTSB details facts known so far in the investigation, an agency spokesman said. The review, which could take up to 18 months to complete, will include an examination of maintenance records for the aircraft owned by the Collings Foundation, he said.

According to the report, the plane received an annual inspection Jan. 16, and was supposed to receive "progressive" inspections at 25, 50, 75 and 100 flight hours after the initial annual inspection. The NTSB noted in the report that the plane received its 100-hour inspection on Sept. 23 and was at 268 hours of flight time at that point.

"That will be part of the investigation," said Eric Weiss, spokesman for the NTSB. "Often times, the preliminary reports raise more questions than they answer."

Pilot reports engine trouble

The report also indicates that Pilot Ernest "Mac" McCauley tried to feather engine four, which is located the farthest to the right, and possibly engine three, in an attempt to keep the plane from listing to the right as he dealt with what appeared to be a failure in at least engine four.

By placing the engines in the feather position, it allows more air to flow through easier allowing the plane to maintain a steadier course if the engines were out, according to Simsbury Airport Manager Bradford Griswold.

"If there's a loss of power in an engine, a pilot can turn the blade so they take a bigger bite of out of the air," Griswold said. "It sounds like he adjusted to the loss of the engine."

The crash occurred just minutes after the vintage plane restored as a replica of the Nine-0-Nine B-17 that flew 140 combat missions in World War II had taken off from Bradley Airport on Oct 2.

Minutes into the flight, McCauley radioed air traffic controllers to report they needed to return to the runway, reports said.

The 75-year-old plane was at the airport as part of the Wings of Freedom tour hosted by the Collings Foundation, which offers short flights in vintage aircraft for a $450 fee.

The plane crashed about two minutes later, landing about 1,000 feet short of the runway while striking stanchions that guide aircraft onto to the ground, NTSB officials said. The plane then veered to the right, crossing the runway and a grassy area before striking a de-icing building and bursting into flames, reports said.

McCauley, 75, his co-pilot and five passengers, including a former Vernon police officer, were killed. The plane's technician, five passengers and an airport employee in the de-icing building suffered varying degrees of injuries. Some of the survivors were taken to the Bridgeport Hospital burn unit.

McCauley held a commercial pilot certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine land, airplane multi-engine land, instrument airplane, and held a type rating for the B-17, according to the NTSB report. In addition, he held a mechanic certificate with airframe and powerplant ratings. McCauley's most recent FAA second-class medical certificate was issued on Jan. 9. At that time, he reported a total flight experience of 14,500 hours.

The co-pilot held an airline transport pilot certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine land, airplane multi-engine land, and instrument airplane, with type ratings for B-737, B-757, B-767, DC-10, and LR-Jet. In addition, he held a flight engineer certificate as well as a flight instructor certificate with ratings for airplane single-engine and instrument airplane. His most recent FAA second-class medical certificate was issued on Jan. 8. At that time, he reported a total flight experience of 22,000 hours, the NTSB said.

Engine fuel not contaminated

NTSB investigators had initially quarantined the fuel truck that filled up the vintage aircraft before it took off the morning of the crash, but later determined that the fuel was appropriate for the plane and testing determined that it wasn't contaminated, Weiss said.

The focus of the investigation has since moved to the engines and other portions of the plane that were seized by the NTSB for review. The investigation will include witness statements, interviews with other pilots from the Collings Foundation and videos provided to the agency by the public and by airport security.

The NTSB will likely not be able to pinpoint one cause for the crash since most aviation accidents are caused by a series of events, Griswold said.

"There is rarely one-single cause," he said. "Usually, a lot of things have to come together and the NTSB will find one or two things that were the most serious contributors to the crash."

Special exemption

The plane was flying under a special Federal Aviation Administration Living History Flight Experience exemption, which allows vintage aircraft owned by museums, foundations and nonprofits to offer rides for a donation or fee to help defray the cost of maintenance.

The policy came under fire by U.S. Sen. Richard Blumenthal who asked the FAA last week to conduct a full review of the program. Blumenthal contends he&rsquos not seeking to ground the flights, but he wants to make sure they are safe for the public.

The Collings Foundation was the first non-profit to seek an exemption with the FAA in 1996 to avoid operating under the same regulations as commercial flights while carrying passengers who pay a fee or a donation. Between 20 and 30 other organizations have since also received exemptions. FAA and NTSB officials said they will look at the entire exemption program as part of their investigation into the crash.

The FAA has reviewed the exemptions at least three times since 1996 and previously instituted a four-year moratorium on any new exemptions based in part on amendments that the Collings Foundation was seeking to allow passengers to engage in riskier flights, including being on board while the pilot performed aerial combat maneuvers.

Each aircraft and non-profit that receives an exemption must fly according to specific restrictions delineated during the approval process. FAA documents show that in 2017 the Collings Foundation provided its maintenance and training information to the agency, but requested the documents not be made public. The documents, which were posted on a special FAA docket for the Collings Foundation exemption approval process, do not list a timeline on when the organization's aircraft are inspected.

The Collings Foundation canceled the rest of its flight season a few days after the crash. But foundation Executive Director Rob Collings issued a statement to supporters about a week after the accident asking them to let the FAA know that his operation and the Living History Flight Experience exemptions should be allowed to continue.


CONCLUSIONS

The interpretations presented above offer some new ideas for the evolution of Death Valley. The Panamint Range, rather than being a large fault block detached from above the Black Mountains, is a core complex like the northern end of the range at Tucki Mountain. Basin and Range extensional allochthons occur along the east flank of the range these formed during Miocene–Early Pliocene Basin and Range extension. Death Valley is a pull-apart basin, as originally proposed by Burchfiel and Stewart (1966), formed in the last 3 m.y. Prior to this time, a thick sedimentary sequence was deposited in what is now the northern Black Mountains, with early sedimentation being mostly volcanics. These volcanics were deposited partly on the exhumed detachment surface from the earlier phase of Basin and Range extension. The turtlebacks are megamullions very similar to megamullions adjacent to seafloor spreading centers. The turtleback structures formed in the last 3 m.y., although the rocks making up the turtlebacks were exhumed from mid-crustal levels during Basin and Range extension. Fault dips along the southwest flanks of the turtlebacks are steep, e.g., 50° at Badwater as shown in Figure 9.

The Death Valley region has played a key role in development of models of Basin and Range extension. One of the data points used in structural restorations comes from a thrust complex, preserved in one of the Basin and Range allochthons in the northern Panamint Range, which correlates with a thrust complex of similar geometry in the Nopah Range (Snow and Wernicke, 2000). In Snow and Wernicke's (2000) reconstruction, this correlation is used to restore the Panamint Range to a position adjacent to the Nopah Range. The suggestion in this paper that the Panamints are not a far-traveled extensional allochthon means that this reconstruction must be reexamined. The correlation between thrust complexes is still valid, but instead of the entire Panamint Range being moved, only the extensional allochthons need to be moved. Further implications of this update will be discussed elsewhere.

The change from Basin and Range extension to strike slip between 8 and 3 Ma seen in the Death Valley region is very close to age ranges of changes in similar tectonic settings seen in several other localities in the ECSZ (Stockli et al., 2003 Faulds et al., 2005 Oldow et al., 2008 Lee et al., 2009 Andrew and Walker, 2009). It also coincides with final opening of the northern Gulf of California and initiation of the southern portion of the San Andreas fault (Dorsey et al., 2007). The strong link between Pacific-North America plate motion and structural evolution of the ECSZ is emphasized by this synchronous timing. It would appear that, as the southern portion of the San Andreas fault joined up to the northern Gulf of California, the large-scale restraining bend in the San Andreas fault formed by the Mojave Block (Fig. 1) developed and has forced deformation to the east, into the ECSZ. This eastward propagation is likely to continue with the Pacific-North America plate boundary ultimately moving to the ECSZ, with motion on the San Andreas fault ceasing (Faulds et al., 2005).

This paper was sponsored by the PLATES project at UTIG. Dave Reynolds, Larry Lawver, and especially an anonymous reviewer provided excellent suggestions for improving the manuscript. I would like to thank Dave Reynolds and Stefan Boettcher for introducing me to Death Valley geology.


Watch the video: Two 19 ft. B-17 Flying Fortress in Formation