Lexington III SwStr - History

Lexington III SwStr - History


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Lexington III
( SwStr: t. 448; 1. 177'7"; b. 36'10"; s. 7 k.; a. 4 8",
D.sb., 2.32-pdrs.)

The third Lexington, a sidewheel steamer built at Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1861, was purchased by the War Department and converted into a gunboat at Cincinnati, under the direction of Comdr. John Rodgers.

The gunboat, operated by the Navy, Joined the western flotilla at Cairo. Ill., 12 August 1861. On 22 August she seized steamer W. B. Terry at Paducah, Ky., and on 4 September, with Tyler, she engaged Confederate gunboat Yankee (also known as Jackson and southern shore batteries at Hickman and Columbus, Ky. On 6 September the two gunboats spearheaded General Grant's drive to seize strategic Paducah and Smithland, Ky., at the mouths of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. In his first use of strength afloat, Grant countered a Confederate move into the State, helping preserve Kentucky for the Union and foreshadowing his skillful use of naval mobility and support during the coming campaigns which divided the Confederacy and won the entire Mississippi system for the Union.

Lexington's next action came on the 10th when she and Coneotoga silenced a Confederate battery and damaged Yankee at Lucas Bend, Mo., while covering a troop advance. An 8 inch shell from Lexington exploded in Yankee’s
starboard wheelhouse causing severe damage. Only the powerful batteries on the Bluffs at Columbus, Ky., saved Yankee and another southern steamer from capture.

After accompanying an expedition to Oweneboro, Ky, 22 to 25 September Yankee again engaged the batteries of Columbuo 7 October. with Tyler a month later, she protected General Grant's army during the battle of Belmont silencing enemy batteries which opposed the landings. When a large number of fresh Confederate troops threatened Grant's men, well directed fire of grape and canister from Lexington and Tyler scattered the southern reinforcements enabling the Union soldiers to reach safety on their transports.

The western flotilla steamed up the Tennessee River to attack Fort Henry which guarded this water approach to the South's heartland. Although the operation was originally planned as a Joint expedition, heavy rains for 2 days before the attack delayed troop movements so the gunboats attacked alone 6 February. Accurate fire from the gunboats pounded the fort and found Brigadier General Tilghman, CSA, with all but four of his defending guns useless, to strike his flag. In continuing operations the 3 days following the capitulation of Fort Henry, Tyler, Conestoga and Lexington swept the Tennessee for Confederate transports seized the unfinished steamer transport, and destroyed a railroad bridge spanning the river.

After repairs Lexington rejoined Tlyler protecting Army transports and supporting troop movements along the Tennessee River. On 1 March the gunboats engaged Confederate Forces fortifying Shilo ( Pittsburg Landing) Tenn. They landed a party of sailors and Army sharpshooters to reconnoiter Confederate strength in the area. They then moved further upstream and engaged a Confederate battery at Chickasaw, Ala., on the 12th Later in the month they steamed upstream to Eastport, Miss., where they exchanged fire with southern artillery.

The capture of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson opened serious breaches in the Confederacy's outer defense line which Grant was quick to exploit. Southern troops commanded by Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, made a mayor effort to stem his advance in the battle of Shilo and came close to overwhelming the Union troops. Major General Polk, CSA, reported that the Confederate forces "were
within from 150 to 400 yards of the enemy's position, and nothing seemed wanting to complete the most brilliant victory of the war but to press forward and make a vigorous assault on the demoralized remnant of his force~ At this juncture his gunboats dropped down the river, near the landing where his troops were collected, and opened a tremendous cannonade of shot and shell over the bank, in the direction from where our forces were approaching." This timely support from Lexington and Tyler swung the delicate balance of forces back to the Union side and saved Grant's men from disaster.

Lexington continued to support Army operations in the Tennessee River until steaming down the Mississippi with Coneotoga, St. Louis, and Mound City to enter the White River, Ark., 14 June. While the Union gunboats, were capturing St. Charles, Ark., 17 June a direct hit exploded Mound City's steam drum scaling many of her men. The injured crewmen were treated on Lexington as she pushed 63 miles further upriver to Crooked Point Cut-off where fall water forced her to turn back. The gunboat then returned to the Mississippi to protect Army transports from guerilla bands which attacked from the riverbanks.

Lexington, transferred to the Navy with the other ships of the western flotilla 1 October 1862, participated in the joint expedition up the Yazoo to attack Vicksburg from the rear. On 27 December while clearing mines from the river the Union gunboats fought off heavy attacks by Confederate batteries. The next day they provided cover fire for General Sherman's troops during an attack on Confederate-held Chicasaw Bluffs. `'Through these operations," Porter wrote, "the Navy did everything that could be done to ensure the success of General Sherman's movement." Although the Navy supplied short bombardment from the squadron and created diversionary movements, the Union troops, hindered by heavy rains and faced by the timely arrival of Confederate reinforcements, were forced to withdraw.

On 4 January 1863 the gunboats and Army transports headed up the White River, Ark., to attack Fort Hindman. The squadron covered the landing of troops on the 9th by shelling Confederate mine pits. The next day, though the Army was not in position to press the attack, the Union ships moved to within 60 yards of the staunchly defended fort and began a blistering engagement which softened the works for the next day's assault.When the Union troops charged the position on the 11th, the gunboats resumed their well-directed fire and silenced every southern gun. After this defeat the Confederates evacuated other positions on the White and St. Charles rivers.

Meanwhile Confederate raiders were threatening to wrest control of the Cumberland valley from the Union. Answering General Rosecrans' appeal for naval support, Lexington got underway for the Cumberland River 2n Jam January. The joint Army-Navy cooperation kept the upper rivers open to the Union and prevented an effective Confederate counteroffensive. Frequently flghting off attacks from Southern snipers and flying batteries, Lexington escorted transports and destroyed Confederate positions along the banks. On 3 February with five other ships she helped repulse a Confederate attempt to retake Fort Donelson. When they reached the scene of the battle they found the defending troops "out of ammunition and entirely surrounded by the rebels in overwhelming numbers, but still holding them in check." Lexington routed the Confederates in a hurry.

Ordered dow n the Mississippi 2 June to support final operations against Vicksburg, Lexington joined Choetau, in defending Union troops at Milliken's Bend, Miss., from the assault of numerically superior Confederate soldiers on the 7th. For the next month she continued to operate against the mighty Confederate fortress until it fell 4 July.

After reconnaissance work and patrol duty in the Mississippi during the summer Lexington was ordered back to the Tennessee River 29 October to assist General Sherman at the beginning of his drive through the Confederate heartland. However, at the end of February 1864, she returned to the Mississippi for operations in support of the Red River campaign. With paddle wheel monitor Osage and four other gunboats she moved up the Black River to gather information about Confederate sharp shooters as they entered the Ouachita River and proceeded up the Bayou Louis where falling water compelled them to return, capturing Confederate artillery and large quantities of cotton before reaching the mouth of the Red River 5 March. A week later the Mississippi Squadron moved up the Red River in force.

The Confederate defenders were driven out at Simmes" port and General Smith's troops marched on Fort De Russy, La., which was taken by the combined land.and naval forces 14 March 1864. The next day Lexington with gunboat Ouachita, followed by the Eastport, pushed on toward Alexandria, La., chasing Confederate steamers fleeing toward safety above the Alexandria rapids; but the Union ships arrived less than an hour too late to capture six steamers which had succeeding in getting over the falls. Confederate steamer Countess which grounded in flight and a barge left behind were burned to prevent capture. The Army transports arrived the next day and troops were landed to occupy that town.

On 7 April Lexington and five other gunboats steamed over the falls toward Shreveport to support General Banks who was advancing up the valley. Three days later the hulk of steamer Neu, Falls City, sunk in a narrow stretch of the river near Springfield Landing, La., blocked the progress of the expedition Before this obstruction could be removed, word arrived from Major General Banks of his defeat at the Battle of Sabine Cross Roads near Grand Encore and retreat toward Pleasant Hill. The transports and troops of Brig. Gen. T. K. Smith were ordered to return to the major force and Join Banks. The high tide of the Union's Red River campaign had been reached. From this point, with falling water level and increased Confederate shore fire the gunboats would face a desperate battle to avoid being trapped above the Alexandria rapids.

Lexington silenced the shore battery but the Confederate cavalry poured a hail of musket fire into the rest of the squadron. The rebels fought with unusual pertinacity for over an hour, delivering the heaviest and most concentrated fire of musketry. What Porter described as "this curious affair, . a fight between infantry and gunboats", was finally decided b.y the gunboats' fire, which inflicted heavy losses on the Confederates, including the death of their commander, Gen. Thomas Green. This engagement featured the use of a unique instrument, developed by Chief Engineer Thomas Doughty of ORage and later described by Selfridge as "a method of sighting the turret from the outside, by means of what would now be called a periscope . ." The high banks of the Red River po~ed a great difficulty for the ships' gunners in aiming their cannon from water level. Doughty's ingenious apparatus helped to solve the problem. Thus was the periscope a familiar sight on gun turrets and on submarines of this century, brought into Civil War use on the western w aters.

Upon reaching Grand Encore the fleet faced a dangerous situation. The Red River, normally high until late June. had fallen so much that the gunboats could not pass over the rapids and it seemed that the better part of the ~Mississippi S~luadron was doomed to destruction as the Union Army made plans for evacuation. Hov. ever, Lt. Col. Joseph Baily USA, proposed a plan for building a series of dams across the rocks of the falls and raising the water. A center opening would let the ships ride out on the crest of the water. On 9 May 1864 the dam had nearly reached completion but the pressure of the water became so great that it swept away two stone barges which swung in below the dam on one side. Seeing this accident, Admiral Porter mounted a horse and rode up to where upper vessels were anchored and ordered Lexington to get underway.

Lieutenant Bache succeeded in getting Lexington over the upper falls, then steered her directly for the opening in the dam where the furiously raging waters seemed to promise only her destruction. She entered the gap in the dam with a full head of steam and pitched down the powerful torrent with several heavy rolls, hung for a moment on the rocks below, then reached the calm, deep water to the ringing cheers of some 30,000 voices. She was soon followed by the remainder of the vessels and the Union's valuable fleet was saved.

On 15 June 1864 Lexington' seized the Confederate steamers Mattie, M. Walt and R.E. Hill, at Benlah Landing, Miss., with cotton on board. She repulsed an attack on White River Station, Ark., 22 June 1864. For the rest of the war she continued patrol and convoy duty. She arrived at Mound City, Ill., 5 June 1865 and decommissioned there 2 July 1865. Lexington was sold to Thomas Scott and Woodburn 17 August 1866.


Battles of Lexington and Concord

The battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. [9] The battles were fought on April 19, 1775 in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge. They marked the outbreak of armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in America.

  • British forces succeed in destroying cannon and supplies in Concord
  • Militia successfully drive British back to Boston
  • Start of the American Revolutionary War

In late 1774, Colonial leaders adopted the Suffolk Resolves in resistance to the alterations made to the Massachusetts colonial government by the British parliament following the Boston Tea Party. The colonial assembly responded by forming a Patriot provisional government known as the Massachusetts Provincial Congress and calling for local militias to train for possible hostilities. The Colonial government exercised effective control of the colony outside of British-controlled Boston. In response, the British government in February 1775 declared Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion.

About 700 British Army regulars in Boston, under Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, were given secret orders to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies reportedly stored by the Massachusetts militia at Concord. Through effective intelligence gathering, Patriot leaders had received word weeks before the expedition that their supplies might be at risk and had moved most of them to other locations. On the night before the battle, warning of the British expedition had been rapidly sent from Boston to militias in the area by several riders, including Paul Revere and Samuel Prescott, with information about British plans. The initial mode of the Army's arrival by water was signaled from the Old North Church in Boston to Charlestown using lanterns to communicate "one if by land, two if by sea".

The first shots were fired just as the sun was rising at Lexington. Eight militiamen were killed, including Ensign Robert Munroe, their third in command. [10] The British suffered only one casualty. The militia was outnumbered and fell back, and the regulars proceeded on to Concord, where they broke apart into companies to search for the supplies. At the North Bridge in Concord, approximately 400 militiamen engaged 100 regulars from three companies of the King's troops at about 11:00 am, resulting in casualties on both sides. The outnumbered regulars fell back from the bridge and rejoined the main body of British forces in Concord.

The British forces began their return march to Boston after completing their search for military supplies, and more militiamen continued to arrive from the neighboring towns. Gunfire erupted again between the two sides and continued throughout the day as the regulars marched back towards Boston. Upon returning to Lexington, Lt. Col. Smith's expedition was rescued by reinforcements under Brigadier General Hugh Percy, a future Duke of Northumberland styled at this time by the courtesy title Earl Percy. The combined force of about 1,700 men marched back to Boston under heavy fire in a tactical withdrawal and eventually reached the safety of Charlestown. The accumulated militias then blockaded the narrow land accesses to Charlestown and Boston, starting the siege of Boston.

Ralph Waldo Emerson describes the first shot fired by the Patriots at the North Bridge in his "Concord Hymn" as the "shot heard round the world". [11]


Proceedings of Lexington Historical Society and Papers Relating to the History of the Town, Vol. III

Various is the correct author for any book with multiple unknown authors, and is acceptable for books with multiple known authors, especially if not all are known or the list is very long (over 50).

If an editor is known, however, Various is not necessary. List the name of the editor as the primary author (with role "editor"). Contributing authors&apos names follow it.

Note: WorldCat is an excellent res Various is the correct author for any book with multiple unknown authors, and is acceptable for books with multiple known authors, especially if not all are known or the list is very long (over 50).

If an editor is known, however, Various is not necessary. List the name of the editor as the primary author (with role "editor"). Contributing authors' names follow it.

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Contents

During World War II, the United States Navy purchased two Great Lakes side-wheel paddle steamers and converted them into freshwater aircraft carrier training ships. Both vessels were designated with the hull classification symbol IX (Unclassified Miscellaneous) and lacked hangar decks, elevators or armaments. The role of these ships was for the training of pilots for carrier take-offs and landings. [86] Together the Sable and Wolverine trained 17,820 pilots in 116,000 carrier landings. Of these, 51,000 landings were on Sable. [87]


Lexington and Concord

Irate over colonists' reaction to the Coercive Acts, King George III declares that Parliament must take a tougher stand against this "most daring spirit of resistance and disobedience to the law." Parliament overwhelmingly agrees: Massachusetts is in a state of rebellion, and several other colonies are aiding and abetting her insubordination.

General Thomas Gage, commander of British forces in America and recently appointed governor of Massachusetts, is determined to quell the unrest. He exerts his authority over all aspects of Massachusetts' public life, from meeting hall, to courthouse, to dockside. Regulars are everywhere, an ever-present sign of Boston's humiliation.

Sensing the town's rising temperature, Gage decides to defuse New England's military arsenal. On 1 September, he sends 260 soldiers to seize 250 barrels of gunpowder from the powder house at Charlestown. Colonists, convinced they are under attack, raise a powder alarm , which mobilizes thousands of local militia, some as far away as Connecticut. Gage fortifies Boston against possible attack, while the Provincial Congress establishes a network of alarm riders and rapid-response militia units. Many fear that civil war is imminent and pray, "Heaven will avert the storm!"

An astute general, Gage needs to understand the lay of the land. In January, he issues orders for Captain John Brown and Ensign Henry de Berniere. The spies are to travel west through Suffolk and Worcester Counties and take sketches of the countryside , noting tactical opportunities and obstacles. Surveying Middlesex County in March, Brown and Berniere discover a store of weapons and supplies in Concord. Just twenty miles from Boston, and a meeting place of the suspended—and thereby illegal—Provincial Congress, Concord is the site of Gage's next strike. Reinforcing his decision is a secret letter from Lord Dartmouth, the Secretary of State for the American Colonies, who encourages Gage to arrest Whig leaders, confiscate the rebels' weapons, and invoke martial law.

On the night of 18 April, British grenadier and light infantry companies gather in Boston's Back Bay. They are ferried across the Charles River basin to Cambridge, and from there they begin their march into Concord. Paul Revere and others sneak out of Boston and ride through the countryside sounding the alarm . When the Regulars arrive in Lexington, minutemen are waiting. A bloody confrontation erupts. After the British push on, eight colonists lie dead on the green ten more are wounded. In Concord, the Regulars are met by an even greater force, which repels them at North Bridge. The Regulars, in retreat, are pursued by a growing militia force, drawn by widely rippling alarms. In time, both sides accuse each other of bloody butchery .

To prevent Gage's troops from making any more forays into the countryside, 20,000 provincials lay siege to Boston. From the safety of its meeting place in Watertown, Dr. Joseph Warren, president of the Provincial Congress in John Hancock's absence, says what is on the minds of many. To "defend Our Wives and our Children" , he declares, each Massachusetts town should enlist men to form an army. But Gage soon strikes a deal: he issues permits to pass in and out of Boston so long as Bostonians first surrender their weapons. It seems further bloodshed is averted, at least for the time being.

Whig leaders try to piece together what happened in Lexington and Concord. They take depositions from all eyewitnesses, including the testimony of the Midnight Rider . Gage begins his own account of how "this unfortunate Affair has happened." In the ensuing battle for public opinion, not only throughout the colonies but also in England, the Bostonians win. Dispatching their report by a fast schooner, they edge out Gage by two weeks. The first account Parliament will receive and the British press will publish announces, the militia pleads innocent .


Lexington III SwStr - History

Scorpion III
(SwStr: t. 339 1. l6O'9" b. 24'6" dr. 8' cpl. 60 s.
7.5 k. a. 2 8", 2 18-par. car.)

The third Scorpion, formerly the steamer, Aurora, was built in 1846 by Bishop and Simonson at New York for Sidney Mason and William D. Thompson

purchased by the Navy, at New York, on 7 January 1847 for use in the Mexican War, and commissioned on 23 February 1847, Comdr. Abraham Bigelow in command.

Ordered to the Gulf of Mexico, Scorpion joined the Home Squadron at Anton Lizardo, on 27 April 1847. She participated in the expedition against Tabasco on 16 June 1847, serving as the flagship for Commodore Matthew C. Perry.

Seorpion returned to Anton Lizardo on 25 July 1847 and for the remainder of the war patrolled the coast of Mexico. At the close of the war, she sailed for the Brooklyn Navy Yard, arriving on 11 August 1848. She was decommissioned on 21 August 1848 and sold at auction on 23 December 1848, becoming the merchant steamer, isthmus which was lost at sea in 1854.


Haggin , Louis Lee II

Louis Lee Haggin II was born in Fayette County on April 12, 1913, the great grandson of James Ben Ali Haggin (legendary horseman and mining operator). James B. A. Haggin was a partner in the famed Homestead (silver) Mine in Colorado and Anaconda (copper) Mine in Montana. He owned Elmendorf Farm in Lexington (with over 1,000 thoroughbred horses). Louis L. Haggin graduated from Princeton University and served during the Second World War as a Captain in the Armored Field Artillery.

In 1937, he purchased the Sycamore Farm on Shannon Pike in Woodford County. Mr. Haggin was one of the organizers of the Keeneland Race Course (becoming President in 1940). He married a daughter of Hal Price Headley (which see). He was selected the Chairman of the Keeneland Association in April 1970 and held numerous positions in the Thoroughbred Racing Association and Jockey Club.

Mr. Haggin served as a director of the First National Bank and Trust Company (from 1938 to 1961) and First Security National Bank and Trust Company (from 1961 to 1980). He died during 1980.


A3 - Segregated Schools (1865-1945)

In 1864, the Kentucky legislature established segregated[1] educational institution, funded from all taxes collected from black taxpayers. The county sheriff collected the taxes paid by black taxpayers and deposited the funds into a separate “Negro School Fund.” The fund was managed by a Treasurer, was appointed by the county judge. Thomas Mitchell, a Lexington banker, was appointed as the treasurer, who divided the funds between the segregated schools and “black paupers.”[i] These disbursements were:

In 1866, Rev. Fredrick Braxton opened the first colored school in Lexington. Classes were held in the “Ladies Hall,” at the Methodist Church on Main and Church Streets. Over 300 students were enrolled.[ii] The building was purchased with fund raised by black women, who spent the last year raising funds for the purpose. In 1866, the Freedman’s Bureau became involved in the new school building. The school was named the Howard School, after General O. O. Howard, director of the Freedman’s Bureau. The school was supported Freedman’s Bureau, the American Missionary Association of New York[2] (“AMA”) and the Lexington Negro Public School Fund. The AMA provided white teachers from the north. The local newspaper indicated its support for the schools, but was critical of the teachers[3] from a Northern missionary society.[iii]

By 1868, enrollment increased to 900 students, with classrooms located in the First Baptist Church, Pleasant Green Baptist Church, Main Street Baptist Church and Christian Church.

In September 1868, the “Society for Education of Colored People” petitioned the city council for an appropriation to purchase a second schoolhouse. The council appropriated $500 from the Negro Fund to the “Society of Education” for a new school on Corral Street.[iv] During April 1868, the “Trustees of the Colored Schools” began a campaign to raise additional funds for the new school. The trustees were Rev. James Turner, Henry Scroggins, George Scroggins, R. R. Wells and John Williams. The trustees indicated that there were over 1,300 potential students in Lexington.[v]

In 1871, the Corral Street School opened, in a frame house with 4 classrooms and 93 students from the Howard School.[vi] In addition, around 1871 the Fourth Street School (with two classrooms) was opened.

In 1872, Rev. James Turner led an effort to have the segregated schools fully funded by the city of Lexington. Turner reported “the black community alone could not fund teacher’s salaries and property mortgages.” The city council agreed to release $750 from the white school fund to pay off the mortgage on the Fourth Street School. In addition, the council appropriated $600 from the capitalization fund and promised one-half of the 1872 railroad taxes for the segregated schools.

In September 1873, the city council appointed a special committee to discuss “the subject of an appropriation by the Council for the colored schools of a portion of the school fund of the city of Lexington.” The mayor appointed Madison C. Johnson, W. C. P. Breckinridge and James M. Graves.[vii]

In January 1874, the city agreed to pay the salary of teachers, if the advisory board raised the funds to pay for school supplies, heating and other operating costs of the segregated schools. The principal’s salary was set at $40 per month and teacher’s salary at $35. There were three schools at the time, Corral Street School (with four classrooms), Fourth Street School (with two classrooms) and Church Street School (Ladies Hall – with two classrooms). Each classroom could accommodate 40 to 60 pupils. See Appendix B – Report on Colored Schools. [viii]

In March 1874, the Pleasant Green School opened on Lower and Maxwell Streets. The school was housed in the basement of the Pleasant Green Baptist Church.[ix]

In May 1874, black attendance of 457 was reported.[x] In August 1875, the city council appropriated a per capita of .30 for black students, compared to $1.90 for white students.[xi] On September 2, 1875, the first supervisor of Negro Schools was appointed. He reported to the city’s superintendent.[xii]

In 1882, the Church Street School reported 325 students attending. This school closed the same year.[xiii]

In 1883, the city had three segregated schools – the Corral Street, Pleasant Green and Fourth Street Schools. In January 1883, the new Constitution School opened with 100 pupils.[xiv]

In June 1883, the Pleasant Green School was relocated on Patterson Street, adjacent to the Southern Railroad tracks. The name was changed to Patterson School. The new school was a two-story brick building with seven classrooms, for grades 1 through 7. Classes had to be suspended when trains rolled by. Heating was supplied by pot-belied stoves in each classroom.[xv]

In August 1888, the city school system completed construction on the larger Fourth Street School, near Transylvania University, on Upper and Fifth Streets. The building was constructed of brick, with eight classrooms. The new school cost $7,500.[xvi]

In 1890, Green P. Russell[4] was appointed principal of the Fourth Street School. Russell converted the Fourth Street School to include the Colored High School, the only high school in the state for black students. He later became the supervisor for all the segregated schools in the city.

In 1892, the segregated schools were Fourth Street, Constitution and Patterson.

In 1895, the Fourth Street School was renamed after Green P. Russell. The mayor stated the naming was “a deserved compliment to the present principal of that school on account of his splendid service and for his great work in promoting the educational interest of the colored race in this city.”[xvii]

In 1901, the board refused to reappoint Russell and twelve other teachers. Russell had often conflicted over primary education vs. manual training for black students, especially the funding for manual training. Russell included manual training during the 1900 session of school. At one time, Russell had filed suit against the school board for “back pay.” However, the board later reversed its decision and rehired Russell. In September 1904, Russell reported total enrollment of 1,282 students in the segregated schools.[xviii]

In 1903, a new Constitution School was built on the same site, with 12 classrooms and a principal’s office. The school cost $11,922.45.[xix]

In September 1907, the school board opened the Forest Hill School (Colored School No. 4), located on College Street, between Georgetown and Newtown Pikes. The school was in a rented building with five rooms, heated with a fireplace in every room. The school offered grades 1 to 5.[xx]

During the fall term of 1911, the city schools established a penny lunch for the segregated schools.[xxi]

During 1915, a new high school was built on the site of the Forest Hill School. The high school was named the Russell High School, after Green P. Russell.[xxii] In 1916, the old Fourth Street School (name was changed from Russell School in 1915) was closed and replaced by the Booker T. Washington School on Georgetown Road.

William H. Fouse

In 1921, William H. Fouse[5], principal of Russell High School, obtained approval from the Lexington Board of Education, to build a new high school for black students. In 1923, the new Durbar High School was completed to replace the old Russell High School. The new school was named after Paul Lawrence Dunbar, a famous black poet. Fouse became Dunbar’s principal. In his first annual report, he stated:

“This building marks a new epoch in the educational history of the colored people of Lexington since we are now using the 6-3-3 plan of organization . . . . used in no other colored school in the state of Kentucky”[xxiii]

Dunbar became the first black high school in Kentucky to be accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools.

Dunbar High School

[1] In 1866, the Kentucky legislature passed segregation laws, that required all public schools be separated by race. During 1894, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal, with their “separate but equal” ruling. In 1904, the legislature passed the Day Law, which required segregation of all schools, including private schools.

[2] In 1890, the American Missionary Association founded the Chandler Normal School on Georgetown Road, to provide secondary segregated education. The $15,000 funding was supplied by Phebe Chandler, a northern philanthropist. In 1914, Webster Hall was added to expand enrollment. The school closed in 1923.

[3] It has been taught by teachers – one male and several females we believe – sent here from the North and paid in large part by some Northern society. . . But cannot some means be devised by which these negro schools can be taught by persons, who are not strangers to our habits, customs and civilizations . . . If the minds of the negro children are poisoned and inflamed against the whites, the education given them fits them only for their own destruction and great injury. . . . people interest in these schools, after consultation, devise some means by which these schools may be place under the control of competent teachers.

[4] Green P. Russell was born in Logan County, Kentucky. He graduated from Berea College and assumed a teaching position at the Chilesburg Colored School. In 1890, he was appointed principal of the Fourth Street School. He was also appointed Supervisor of segregated schools, holding both positions at the same time. In 1912, Russell became President of Kentucky Normal and Industrial School for Colored People (now Kentucky State University), at Frankfort. He served until 1923 and then from 1924 to 1929. He was an advocate for black education.

[5] William H. Fouse was born in Westerville, Ohio in 1868. In 1884, he became the first black to graduate from the high school in Westerville. In 1893, he was also the first black to graduate from Otterbein College. He began his educational career as a founder of the Corydon High School, in Indiana. In 1904, he became the principal of Lincoln School in Gallipolis, Ohio and in 1908 the principal of William Grant High School, in Covington, Kentucky. In 1913, he became the principal of the Russell High School and supervisor for “Negro Schools” in Lexington. In 1923, he became the principal of Dunbar High School, serving until his retirement in 1938.

[i] Lexington Daily Press, June 24, 1871, page 4, column 2.

[ii] Lexington Observer & Reporter, June 26, 1867, page 3, column 2 and October 2, 1867, page 3, column 3.

[iii] Lexington Observer & Reporter, June 26, 1867, page 3, column 2.

[iv] Lexington Observer & Reporter, September 12, 1868, page 3, column 4.

[v] Lexington Observer & Reporter, April 17, 1869, page 3, column 4.

[vi] Lexington Herald-Leader, November 5, 1972, page 5, columns 3-5.

[vii] Lexington Daily Press, September 22, 1873, page 4, column 2.

[viii] Lucas, Marion B., A Black History of Kentucky, University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, 1992, page 248 and Lexington Press, January 4, 1874, page 4, column 4.

[ix] Lexington Herald-Leader, November 5, 1972, page 5, columns 3-5.

[x] Lexington Press, May 8, 1874, page 1, column 3.

[xi] Lexington Press, August 12, 1875, page 2, column 2.

[xiii] Lexington Transcript, November 18, 1882, page 1, column 1.

[xiv] Lexington Transcript, January 8, 1883, page 1, column 2.

[xv] Lexington Herald-Leader, November 5, 1972, page 5, columns 3-5.

[xvi] Lexington Leader, August 2, 1888, page 4, column 3 and August 17, 1888, page 4, column 3.

[xvii] Lexington Press Transcript, April 5, 1895, page 4, column 3.

[xviii] Lexington Leader, June 5, 1901, page 5, column 3-4 and September 7, 1904, page 3, column 3.

[xix] Minute Book, Board of Education of the Lexington City Council, 1901-1908, July 16, 1903, page29 and Lexington Herald-Leader, November 5, 1972, page 5, columns 3-5.

[xx] Lexington Leader, September 1, 1907, page 18, column 4 and April 24, 1909, page 2, column 1.


Bassett, James Edward , III

James E. "Ted" Bassett was born in Lexington on October 21, 1921, the grandson of J. Edward Bassett. After serving with the Marines in the South Pacific during the Second World War, he graduated from Yale University. From 1956 to 1967, Mr. Bassett was the Deputy Commissioner for the Department of Public Safety and from 1964 to 1967 the director of the Kentucky State Police.

During 1968, Mr. Bassett became an assistant to Louis L. Haggin, II, President of the Keeneland Association. In 1970 and 1986, he was appointed President and Chairman, respectively, of the Keeneland Association. In 1988, he was also named the President of the Breeders' Cup LTD, sponsors of the Breeders' Cup races. In addition, he was President of the Thoroughbred Racing Association, Thoroughbred Club of America and a Curator of Transylvania University.

Mr. Bassett continued a century old family tradition with his selection as a director in 1970 of First Security and in 1980 of the First Security Corporation.


The Observer III (Lexington, Okla.), Vol. 6, No. 2, Ed. 1 Monday, February 1, 2016

Monthly newspaper from Lexington, Oklahoma that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

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eighteen pages : ill. page 24 x 13 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

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This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Lexington Observer and was provided by the Oklahoma Historical Society to The Gateway to Oklahoma History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

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Oklahoma Historical Society

In 1893, members of the Oklahoma Territory Press Association formed the Oklahoma Historical Society to keep a detailed record of Oklahoma history and preserve it for future generations. The Oklahoma History Center opened in 2005, and operates in Oklahoma City.


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