What's the origin of valet parking?

What's the origin of valet parking?


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Seems that every single place I go nowadays, they have valet parking: restaurants, bars, airports, etc. The other day I got to think about this dreadful service (I have enough skills to park my own car and I really don't mind if I park 2 blocks away, I can walk - thanks!), I assume this tradition out dates the invention of the automobile, where people took someone else's horses / carriages to the stables. However, I really couldn't find any reliable source and oddly enough, Wikipedia's article on it is quite vague. A really dodgy website called valetparking.com states that it originated in the US in the 1930's, however I believe it might have appeared long before this.

Are there any reliable sources of the origin of valet parking?


This isn't a complete answer, but may help. An alternate line of attack is to look at the history and etimology of the word 'Valet' itself. I can't vouch for the reliability of the source, but etymonline.com drops these suggestive titbits:

Modern sense is usually short for valet de chambre; the general sense of "male household servant of the meaner sort" going with the variant form varlet. First recorded use of valet parking is from 1960.

So the idea is one of "Parking by house manservant", with car parking being something that is analogous to one of the regular duties a house manservant would have had. This suggests to me that valet parking evolved as an evolutionary thing. It's easy to imagine a progression like this:

  1. The valets of a noble house provide services to the house's guests that require knowledge of the house, and therefore couldn't be done by the guests' own travelling staff, such as stabling
  2. Establishments begin to provide equivalent services that a visitor to a noble house would expect from that house's valets
  3. This creates an expectation that certain things (such as stabling) will be done as a valet service - something that is done as a matter of course, not as a formal advertised business.
  4. These services re-emerge as a type of named, formal advertised business when you have logistical factors that require that extra level of named accountability (such as trust with car keys), non-commonplace skills (as driving would have been), and abstraction from the immediate premises, e.g. when a valet service might serve multiple establishments in a city location, when they might need business-to-business relationships of their own with multiple 3rd parties such as if they need a network of possible secure parking locations (sourcing parking spots probably wouldn't have been a simple matter when such services first emerged)

This would explain how it sort of slides into existance around the 1930s in an undocumented, uncelebrated way - as a formalised development on something that was commonplace and informal at the time. This would also explain why not much would have been written about it, if it emerged as a improvised business model trying to implement an adjusted version of something that was familiar, rather than a classically notable innovation creating something novel.

Hopefully that's a useful starting point and a plausible theory suggesting leads and which can be tested and explored.


A parking lot is an area that is assigned for parking. Normally, the parking spaces are marked on the ground with white or yellow lines that form squares that each fit one car. Parking lots are common near shops, bars, restaurants and other facilities that require parking. There are parking lots that are open throughout the year, but there are also improvised parking lots that are specially assigned for an event. For example, when there is a music festival that only happens once a year people can decide to open a nearby meadow to provide parking spaces for the visitors of that particular music festival.

A parking garages is also called car park, parking structure, parking building, parking ramp, parkade or parking deck.

There are several types of parking garages:

Single level parking garage

A single level parking garage is a parking garage that only has only one floor.

Multilevel or multi-storey parking garage

Multilevel or multi-storey parking garages are parking garages that have multiple floors to park at. The design of a multilevel parking garage can be very different. The most common design is a garage with ramps to move from one level to another. Less common are parking garages that use lifts to go from level to level. Then there are also parking garages with robotic systems that move cars from one level to another. The floors of the parking garage can either go up, down or both.

Underground parking garage

An underground parking garage has levels below the surface and none above ground. Most often underground parking garages are located in city centers where there&rsquos not much space available to build a parking facility, but there is a big need to build one.

Automated parking garage

The car park operates as followed: You drive your car onto a platform in the garage. Then the automated parking system will move your car to the available parking space somewhere in the tower. The cars can be moved vertically and horizontally with the use of hydraulic or mechanical lifts. There are several benefits to a multilevel parking facility with an automated parking system. For example you can stack more cars in a compact space because the cars are parked by robots. Also parking spaces can be smaller because no one needs to get in or out of the vehicle and people don&rsquot park it themselves the robotic system doesn&rsquot need as much space to park a car than a human does. You do need to clean the equipment every once in a while, plus at least one to four times a year someone needs to check the equipment to see if it all still works properly. The number of times for a service check depends on the equipment that is used.


Unprecedented Activity

During the Space Shuttle years NASA didn’t have to worry about relocating their spacecraft, as there was never more than one of the winged orbiters in space at the same time. But since the Shuttle was capable of simultaneously carrying seven crew members and an incredible amount of cargo, this wasn’t a problem. All of NASA’s operational needs on the ISS were more than met by a single vehicle.

Of course, all that changed when the Shuttle was retired in 2011. NASA began making deals with its international partners, and eventually even commercial companies, to bring crew and cargo to the Station on a wide array of smaller and more operationally nimble spacecraft. Today these vehicles, in addition to Russia’s Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, occupy most of the available docking and berthing ports on the ISS at any given time. In the coming years even more commercial spacecraft are expected to be brought online, meaning traffic is only going to get worse at the orbiting outpost.

All of the spacecraft docked to the ISS as of April 9th, 2021.

With the US segment of the ISS now busier than ever, NASA is faced with a logistical challenge that their Russian counterparts are already well accustomed to. This may have been the first time an American spacecraft had to be relocated to another docking port during a mission, but to date, 19 Soyuz capsules have had to make similar treks the most recent of which having just occurred a few weeks prior on March 19th.


Contents

Etymology Edit

In the 1920s, a town car was a body design typically used for limousines. The description originated from the horse-drawn carriage that featured an open chauffeur's compartment with a fixed roof for the passengers. [2] During that era, the fixed rear roof horse-drawn carriage became a limousine and the term "de Ville" in French meant "for town (use)". [3] In 1922, Edsel Ford purchased a custom-built Lincoln L-Series town car as a personal vehicle for his father, Henry Ford. [4]

Later, the "sedan de Ville" was used as a model name by Cadillac, the primary rival to the Lincoln Continental from the 1950s to the 1990s.

Continental Town Car Edit

1959-1960 Edit

For 1959, Lincoln augmented it's pre-existing Continental lineup with the addition of two formal sedans known as the Town Car and Limousine. Both new vehicles featured pillared construction, interiors of broadcloth and scotch-grain leather as well as deep pile carpeting. No options were offered with all equipment including air conditioning being standard the Limousine came with a glass partition between the front and rear seats.

In place of the reverse-slant roofline used by all other Continentals (including convertibles), the Town Car/Limousine was styled with a notchback roofline with a heavily padded vinyl top and an inset rear window. In addition to the slightly restrained styling, the change in the roofline was also functional. To add rear-seat legroom, the rear seat was repositioned without any modification in the wheelbase. In the years to follow both Imperial and Cadillac would redesign the rooflines on their own range-topping vehicles (the LeBaron and Fleetwood Sixty-Special) to appear more formal and limousine-like.

One of the rarest vehicles ever produced by Ford Motor Company, [5] 214 Town Cars and 83 Limousines were produced from 1959 to 1960 all examples were painted black.

1970-1979 Edit

For 1970, the Town Car name returned as a trim package option, including leather seating surfaces and deeper cut-pile carpeting. [6] For 1971, a limited-edition (1500 produced) Golden Anniversary Continental Town Car commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of Lincoln. [7] For 1972, the Town Car was introduced as a sub-model of the Lincoln Continental model line. [8] On nearly all examples, a vinyl top covered the rear half of the roof, with a full-length configuration optional. A raised molding over the roof incorporated coach lamps on the B-pillars. For 1973, Lincoln introduced a two-door variant of the Continental Town Car, named the Town Coupe. As with the Town Car, the Town Coupe was offered with a standard vinyl roof.

As part of the 1975 redesign of the Lincoln roofline, the Town Car adopted the oval opera windows of the Mark IV coupe, with the Town Coupe given a large rectangular opera window.

The Continental Town Car proved to be a success for the division, becoming the most popular Lincoln vehicle of the 1970s (as the Mark IV and Mark V were not technically branded as Lincolns). [7]

1976 Lincoln Town Coupe (two-door version)

1978 Lincoln Continental Town Car

1979 Lincoln Continental Town Car

Closeup image of rear roofline of a 1977 Lincoln Continental Town Car, showing padded rear vinyl roof and opera windows.

1980 Edit

For 1980, Lincoln became the final American brand to market downsized full-size cars. In its redesign, the Lincoln Continental shifted from the largest production sedan in North America to a design with a smaller exterior footprint than Cadillac. The Continental Town Car returned as the top trim for the Lincoln model range in its own downsizing, the Mark series introduced the Continental Mark VI. Though technically not badged a Lincoln, the Mark VI shared its chassis and much of the body with the Continental to reduce development and production costs.

While Lincoln had brought downsized model lines to production, from a marketing standpoint, the consolidation of the Continental, Continental Town Car/Town Coupe, and the Mark VI proved catastrophic. Following the early 1980 withdrawal of the slow-selling Lincoln Versailles, Lincoln-Mercury dealers offered three highly similar vehicles across a wide price range in the same showroom. The discontinuation of the Versailles also marked the return of Lincoln exclusively to the full-size sedan segment, leaving nothing to sell against European-brand luxury vehicles.

For 1981, Lincoln underwent a revision to transition its full-size model range from three nameplates to one, commencing a multi-year transition throughout all three Ford divisions. For 1981, the Continental went on hiatus, with Lincoln shifting the nameplate to a mid-size sedan for 1982. The Mark VI ended its model cycle in 1983 for 1984, the Mark VII exited the full-size segment, shifting the Mark Series into a different market segment.

A model year removed from the extensive downsizing of its full-size model range, the Lincoln division underwent a revision of its nameplates. Following the discontinuation of the compact Versailles sedan, Lincoln was left marketing six nearly identical vehicles (Continental, Continental Town Car, and Mark VI, all offered both as two-door and four-door sedans). For 1981, the Lincoln Town Car was introduced, consolidating the Continental and Continental Town Car into a single model line slotted below the Mark VI.

Largely similar to the 1980 Lincoln Continental, the Lincoln Town Car was offered as a two-door and four-door sedan (the Town Coupe nameplate was discontinued). Largely overshadowed by its Mark VI counterpart, the Town Car two-door was discontinued for 1982. As the Mark VII was introduced for 1984, Lincoln pared its full-size line down solely to the Town Car four-door sedan.

At the time of its launch, the Town Car was initially slated for replacement by front-wheel drive model lines (in anticipation of further volatility in fuel prices) as fuel prices began to stabilize, demand rose for the model line, leading Lincoln-Mercury to produce the Town Car through the 1980s with few visible changes. Over 200,000 were sold for 1988, the highest ever for the model line. [13]

Chassis Edit

The 1980–1989 Lincoln Continental/Town Car utilized the Panther platform shared with Ford and Mercury. Delayed to the 1980 model year due to engineering issues, the Panther platform meant radically different exterior dimensions for the Lincoln models. Although extended three inches in wheelbase over its Ford/Mercury/Mark VI coupe counterparts, the 1980-1989 versions would have the shortest wheelbase ever used for a full-size Lincoln at the time (10 inches shorter than its 1979 predecessor). The 1980 Continental/Town Car was the shortest Lincoln since the Versailles. In the interest of fuel economy and handling, the Panther chassis reduced weight by up to 1400 lbs compared to the 1970-1979 full-size Lincolns. As the lightest full-size Lincoln in 40 years, the 1980 Continental/Town Car came within less than 200 pounds of the curb weight of the compact-sized Versailles. The new Panther platform meant reduced overall size, better suspension geometry, and upgraded power steering with a reduced turning diameter by over 8 feet (compared to the 1979 Lincoln Continental). For 1984, gas-pressurized shocks were added.

To achieve better Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) results, Ford discontinued the 400 and 460 big-block V8s in its full-size cars. For 1980, a 130 hp 4.9 L V8 (the 302 Windsor, marketed as a "5.0 L" V8) was the standard engine. A 140 hp 351 CID V8 was available as an option. Following the introduction of the Lincoln Town Car in 1981, the 5.0 L V8 became the only available engine (with the 351 becoming an option for Ford and Mercury). In Canada, the 302 V8 remained carbureted until 1985. In 1986, the 302 V8 was revised to 150 hp, following a redesign of the fuel-injection system with the introduction of sequential multi-port fuel injection. These engines are identifiable by their cast aluminum upper intake manifolds with horizontal throttle body (vertical throttle plate) this replaced the traditional throttle body with a carburetor-style top-mounted air cleaner previously used. Introduced in the Lincoln Continental for 1980 and marketed in all Panther-platform vehicles in 1981, the Lincoln Town Car was equipped with the 4-speed AOD automatic overdrive transmission, the sole transmission of 1981-1989 examples.

All Town Cars from 1980 to 1989 featured an optional trailer towing package which included dual exhausts, a 3.55:1 limited slip differential (code 'K') and an improved cooling package for the engine as well as transmission.

Body Edit

Exterior Edit

During the late 1970s, the sales of the Lincoln Continental had held steady and the Continental Mark V would go on to outsell its Cadillac Eldorado counterpart. In the development of the Lincoln Town Car, the design themes of the 1977-1979 Lincoln Continental and Mark V would both influence the exterior design of the 1980 Continental/Town Car. As with its predecessors, the Town Car features nearly flat body sides, sharp-edged fenders, and a radiator-style grille. In a major departure, hideaway headlamps gave way to exposed halogen headlamps (the first on a full-size Lincoln since 1969). Another first included fully framed door glass (retractable vent windows were now standard) in sharp contrast to its Ford and Mercury counterparts, the window frames were painted matte black. While chrome trim remained around the headlamps and window frames, in a break from Lincoln tradition, it was deleted from the top of the fenders. Though mechanically similar to the Ford LTD and Mercury Marquis (the Ford LTD Crown Victoria and Mercury Grand Marquis after 1983), the Lincoln Town Car shared visible body panels only with the Continental Mark VI. In contrast to its Ford, Mercury, and Mark VI counterparts, the rooflines of 1981-1989 Town Cars feature a vertical quarter window in the C-pillar.

After only 4,935 two-door Town Cars were sold in 1981, the bodystyle was discontinued for 1982. In the shift from rebadging the Continental to the Lincoln Town Car for 1981, Lincoln replaced the "Continental" badging above the headlights with "Town Car", which was removed in 1984.

A padded roof was standard equipment on all Town Cars, with its design determined by trim level. On standard-trim Town Cars, a leather-grained vinyl full-length covering with center pillar coach lamps was fitted. For Signature Series and Cartier trims, a padded vinyl coach roof (covering the rear half of the roof) with a frenched (smaller) rear window opening was fitted the coach roof was also an option on standard-trim Town Cars. On non-Cartier Town Cars, a full-length cloth (canvas) roof was an option imitating the look of a convertible, the design deleted the C-pillar quarter windows.

During the 1980s, the Lincoln Town Car would undergo several exterior revisions. For 1985, the model was given a mid-cycle facelift. In addition to (slightly) improving its aerodynamics, the design was intended to visually shorten the car (though length was essentially unchanged). The front and rear bumpers were redesigned, better integrating them into the bodywork. The rear fascia was redesigned distinguished by redesigned taillamps, the trunklid was better integrated with the rear fenders. For 1986, to meet federal regulations, a center brake light was added in the rear window. For 1988, the grille was updated with a brushed-metal panel between the taillamps, which now featured the reverse lamps.

1989 models are distinguished by special trim features including satin black paint for grille blades, trim between headlights, and amber (instead of clear) front parking lamps. The "Lincoln" front-end badging is moved from above left headlight onto grille and changed to large sans-serif script. In the rear, the brushed-metal panel was given a pinstripe finish and all badging was moved from the panel onto the trunk lid. All models feature a landau roof with a smaller, more formal "frenched" rear window. All non-Cartier models also include an embedded Lincoln "star" emblems in their opera windows

Interior Edit

The interior of the Lincoln Town Car featured many advanced luxury options for its time. Signature Series and Cartier models featured 6-way power seats (and manual seatback recliners) for the driver and front passenger the Lincoln Town Car adopted a split front bench seat previously seen on the Mark coupes. Several electronic features included an optional digital-display trip computer showing the driver "miles to empty" and (based on driver input) an "estimated time of arrival". A keypad-based keyless entry system unlocked the vehicle through a 5-digit combination (factory-programmed or owner-programmed). Mounted above the driver door handle, the keypad allowed the driver to lock all four doors after entering the code, the driver could unlock the doors or release the trunklid. Along with keyfob-based systems, the keypad system is still in use on Ford and Lincoln vehicles (as of 2017).

As part of the 1985 update, the Lincoln Town Car was the first Ford vehicle to feature a CD player as an option (as part of a 12-speaker JBL premium stereo system) [14] while 1984 was the final year for the option of 8-track players and CB radios for the Town Car. [14] In a functional change, the horn button was moved from the turn-signal lever to the steering wheel hub. [14] The door trim was changed from wood to upholstery matching the seats. [14]

For 1986, the front-seat head restraints were replaced with a taller 4-way articulating design walnut burl trim replaced much of the satin black trim on the lower dash. For 1988, the instrument cluster was updated for Town Cars with analog gauges, the instrument panel was given round dials in square bezels. In addition, new wood trim was added to the dashboard and steering wheel.

1984 Lincoln Town Car Signature Series

1984 Lincoln Town Car Signature Series, rear

1987 Lincoln Town Car dashboard (open-roof limousine conversion)

Rear view, 1986 Lincoln Town Car

1988 Lincoln Town Car (base model)

Trim Edit

At its 1980 launch, the Lincoln Town Car was offered in two trim levels, a standard/base trim and a Lincoln Town Car Signature Series (a name shared with the Mark VI, though with less exclusive features). [14] In 1982, Lincoln adopted the Mark-Series tradition of Designer Series editions as the Cartier Edition was shifted from the Mark VI to the Town Car, becoming the top trim level [14] the Cartier Edition would remain part of the Town Car line through the 2003 model year.

Special editions Edit

Cartier Designer Edition

In 1982, in a trim level shift, the Cartier Edition was moved from the Mark Series to the Lincoln Town Car. As before, the special-edition package consisted of exclusively-coordinated exterior colors and interior designs, with the Cartier logo embroidered in place of the Lincoln "star" emblem on the seats. For 1987, the package underwent a redesign with new upholstery design and new two-tone (metallic beige) platinum added alongside the traditional platinum silver and two-tone arctic white.

Sail America Commemorative Edition
This special edition 1987 Signature Series model came in white with a blue carriage roof and had a white leather interior with blue piping and special badging. Ford Motor Company was one of the corporate sponsors of the "Sail America Foundation" syndicate, owner of the 1987 America's Cup winning yacht Stars & Stripes 87.

Special Edition
The 1988 Town Car Signature Series was available with a $2,461 'Special Edition package', which included a carriage roof (giving the appearance of a convertible top), wire-spoke aluminum wheels, JBL audio system, leather-wrapped steering wheel, and leather upholstery with contrasting-color piping. This replaced a proposed Gucci edition Town Car that had been in the works.

Gucci Edition
1989 Signature Series Gucci Edition had a special blue canvas roof with fluorescent B-pillar light and a special blue badge on the C Pillar with the word signature. It was designated in the VIN number as code 84.

Marketing Edit

For the 1985 model year, the Cadillac DeVille and Fleetwood, traditional competitors of the Lincoln Town Car, shifted to front-wheel drive platforms (The Fleetwood Brougham retained its rear-drive platform and styling), becoming smaller than the Lincoln Continental. At the time, Lincoln marketed the larger size of the Town Car as a selling point. In response to the downsized Cadillacs, Lincoln introduced a series of advertisements in late 1985 titled "The Valet" which depicted parking attendants having trouble distinguishing Cadillacs from lesser Buicks (Electras) and Oldsmobiles (Ninety-Eights), with the question "Is that a Cadillac?" answered by the response "No, it's an Oldsmobile. or Buick." At the end, the owner of a Lincoln would appear with the line "The Lincoln Town Car please." The commercial campaign saw the emergence of the new advertising line for the brand, "Lincoln. What a Luxury Car Should Be." which was used into the 1990s. [15] While the Town Car retained its traditional layout and large size, fuel prices dropped to a contemporary new low at the time, and operating economy became less of a concern to buyers than a decade prior.

After ten years on the market (nine of them as the Town Car) relatively unchanged, the Lincoln Town Car was given an extensive redesign inside and out, being launched on October 5, 1989, as a 1990 model. In a move to bring a new generation of buyers to the Lincoln brand, the Town Car adopted a far more contemporary image, bringing it in line with the Continental and Mark VII. In addition, the Town Car adopted a new range of safety and luxury features and would mark the debut of a powertrain that would see usage in a wide variety of Ford Motor Company vehicles.

The second-generation Town Car was a sales success and became one of the best-selling full-size U.S. luxury sedans. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Town Car sales regularly exceeded 100,000 units with 120,121 Town Cars being sold in 1994 alone. [18] Following the discontinuation of the Cadillac Fleetwood by General Motors after 1996, the Lincoln Town Car became the longest-length regular-production sedan sold in the United States.

The Town Car was named the 1990 Motor Trend Car of the Year.

Development Edit

The second-generation Town Car was developed from 1985 to 1989 under the codename FN36, at a cost of $650 million USD, led by project manager John Jay. Following its downsizing to the Panther platform in 1980, the Lincoln Town Car was originally slated to be discontinued by the middle of the decade and replaced by a smaller front-wheel drive sedan after the 1979 fuel crisis, gasoline prices were predicted to reach $2.50 per gallon and Ford Motor Company had lost $1.5 billion for 1980. [19] However, by 1984, full-size Lincoln sales had rapidly increased, with 1984 sales up 300% over 1980. [19] By the early 1980s, instead of ending the product cycle of the Lincoln Town Car, Ford product planners instead chose its front-wheel drive mid-size platform (of the Ford Taurus) to become the next-generation Lincoln Continental. [19]

In August 1985, Ford designers began sketching and constructing clay models of competing designs under lead designer Gale Halderman and Ford Group Design Vice President Jack Telnack, with a final design chosen in May 1986 two full-scale (1:1) proposals were reviewed by a four-member design committee, chaired by CEO Donald Petersen, Jack Telnack, Ford President Harold Poling, and William Clay Ford, vice-chairman. [20] Various proposals were considered ranging from a conservative update of the existing Town Car to a European-style body in the design language of the 1988 Lincoln Continental (FN-9, designed in 1984). [20]

The final compromise of the committee sought to keep the identity of the Town Car (thus avoiding repeating the mistakes of Cadillac) while introducing a contemporary vehicle for the 1990s. [20] In the interest of fuel economy, the Lincoln Town Car was required to become more aerodynamic (reducing wind noise), [20] but key parts of its design were integrated into its design, with its radiator-style grille, chrome trim, and opera windows. [20] In a major design constraint, the design team was not to make any major reductions in size to the Town Car, preserving its large interior and trunk space as key marketing points to buyers. [21]

In 1984, a second factor driving the design of the FN36 project was initiated, as the United States government introduced regulations mandating passive restraints on vehicles produced after September 1, 1989 along with automatic seat belts, out of necessity, automakers began to reconsider the use of airbags as passive restraints. By 1988, dual airbags remained nearly unused in cars sold in the United States, with the exception of the Mercedes S-Class (Mercedes-Benz W126) and the Porsche 944. [22] [23] To comply with the legislation, Lincoln introduced the 1988 Continental with dual airbags, becoming the first Ford Motor Company (and first domestically-produced vehicle) with them standard. [24] [25] As adding airbags to the 1988-1989 Town Car would require a redesign of the steering column and entire dashboard, dual airbag were moved to the FN36 project, making them an intended standard feature. [21]

At the time the FN36 project was launched in 1985, to extend the life of the Town Car, Lincoln-Mercury began a number of advertisements satirizing the newly introduced 1986 Cadillac model line, making them out to be indistinguishable from a Buick, Pontiac, and Oldsmobile. [20] Although the downsizing of Cadillac initially increased sales, the Lincoln-Mercury ad campaign diverted many buyers to the Town Car and Continental, with over 200,000 Town Cars sold in 1988. [26]

In March 1986, the design freeze for the project occurred, with an intended production start of mid-1989. The second-generation Lincoln Town Car would become the first domestic Ford vehicle engineered outside of the company and constructed by foreign suppliers, with International Automotive Design of Brighton, England handling the engineering, while Japan-based Ogihara Iron Works supplying all of the Town Car body panels from its own factory near the Wixom plant. [27] To improve quality of prototypes, project managers broke from automotive industry precedent, requiring successive hand-built prototypes to be built to production-level quality to determine the locations and causes of specific issues of tooling and manufacturing. From 1988 to 1989, the Town Car would go from over a year behind its production date to two weeks ahead of schedule. [28]

Chassis Edit

To lower the development and production costs of the extensive redesign, Ford Motor Company retained the Panther platform for the Lincoln Town Car, continuing its use of rear-wheel drive. In a major change, rear air suspension (introduced as an option for all three Panther vehicles in 1988) became standard equipment on all Town Cars. For 1990, the Town Car was produced with 11-inch rear drum brakes (identical to its 1989 predecessor) for 1991, they were replaced by 10-inch solid rotor disc brakes.

Due to development delays in the Modular engine program, the 1990 Lincoln Town Car was released with the same powertrain as its predecessor: the 150 hp (112 kW 152 PS) 302 cu in (4.9 L) Ford small block engine V8 with a 4-speed AOD overdrive automatic. [29] In October 1990, the 302 (marketed as 5.0 L) V8 was replaced by a 190 hp (142 kW 193 PS) 4.6 L SOHC Modular V8 for 1991 models for the 1994 model year, the optional 210 hp dual-exhaust version of the engine became standard. Shared with the Ford Crown Victoria and Mercury Grand Marquis, the SOHC version of the 4.6 L Modular V8 would see use in a number of other Ford vehicles within the Ford light-truck line, remaining in production into 2014. For 1993, the AOD transmission was converted to electronic operation, becoming the AOD-E. In 1994, along with a mid-cycle refresh, the 1995 Town Car received the higher-torque 4R70W from the Lincoln Mark VIII.

Body Edit

The second-generation Lincoln Town Car was designed by Gale Halderman and Ford Group Design Vice President Jack Telnack.

Exterior Edit

In its redesign for the 1990 model year, Lincoln stylists sought a completely new design for the Town Car. Many traditional Lincoln styling cues were heavily reworked or abandoned completely. Although the Town Car would keep its formal notchback sedan roofline, the flat-sided fenders and angular lines seen since the Continentals and Mark IIIs of the late 1960s disappeared. Stylists made the body more aerodynamic reducing drag coefficient from 0.46 to 0.36 (matching the 1988 Continental and besting the Mark VII). [16] The 1990 Town Car still retained several styling influences, including its vertical taillights, radiator-style grille, hood ornament, alloy wheels, and vertical C-pillar window. In a move to market the Town Car towards buyers of contemporary vehicles, several other changes were made. Although two-tone paint remained available (featuring a lower body accent color in gray metallic), monotone paint schemes would become increasingly standard. In a major change, a vinyl roof was no longer offered, since vinyl roofs declined in popularity among many buyers. Spoked aluminum wheels were dropped from the options list for 1990, while locking wire wheel discs remained through 1992.

In late 1992, the exterior was given a minor update with a new grille and slightly redesigned tail lamp lenses (distinguished by a "checkerboard" pattern) for 1993 models. As with the Crown Victoria and Grand Marquis, the Town Car received a larger update for the 1995 model year in late 1994 as the FN116. [30] This facelift is best distinguished by the deletion of the fixed quarter glass in the rear doors along with the redesign of the side mirrors (enlarged and changed to body-color). Although the bumper largely remained unchanged, the front fascia was updated as the headlamp clusters are changed to a clear-lens design and separated from the grille. The grille was redesigned, returning to the 1990-1992 design in a surround fitting closer to the body. The rear fascia saw the trim between the tail lamps redesigned, featuring additional running lights, while the reverse lamps were moved from the outer edges of the reflector panel to the center, beneath the lid lock cover (similar to the 1985 - 1987 models).

Interior Edit

In a departure from the Lincoln Continental and Mark VII, the use of the Panther platform necessitated a degree of component sharing with the Ford and Mercury counterparts. Although fitted with its own seats and door panels, [31] the Town Car was fitted with essentially the same dashboard as the Mercury Grand Marquis (versions with digital instruments retain the instrument panel layout from 1988-1989). In 1993, the wood trim was changed to an orange-toned walnut. Due to its popularity (and to better separate the Town Car from its Ford/Mercury counterparts), the digital instrument panel was made standard as such, the climate-control system was converted to a digital display. New for the 1995 model year was an integrated, voice-activated in-car cellular telephone concealed in the center armrest, which featured a speakerphone as well as a rearview mirror-mounted microphone for hands-free calling.

As part of its 1995 Mid-cycle refresh, the interior saw a greater degree of change than the exterior. To bring the design up to date (and in line with the rest of the Lincoln line), the dashboard and door panels featured a curved design, while influenced by the Mark VIII, the 6-passenger design of the Town Car precluded the adoption of a center console in the interior. To increase storage space, the dual center armrests of the front seats on Signature and Cartier models were redesigned to include storage compartments (to hold cassettes and the optional cellular telephone). The dashboard design continued into the new door panels, now with an illuminated power window and seat adjuster cluster, and a back-lit power door lock switch placed higher on the door. Releases for the trunk and fuel door were moved from the dashboard onto the lower driver's door. Redesigned seat patterns now offered an available driver and front passenger electric heat feature. The radio antenna was integrated into the rear window. [31] Although the basic controls of the interior remained common across all Panther vehicles, the Town Car gained a model-specific instrument panel, featuring italicized readouts.

For 1996, the climate controls were again redesigned while Cartier Designer Editions featured genuine wood trim on the dashboard and door panels. In 1997, few changes were made: the rear center armrest added a pair of cup holders, while Cartier models gained rear-seat vanity mirrors mounted in the headliner. Also in 1997, the trim level badges were moved to the front fenders in place of the "Town Car" badges. Subsequently, the rear side opera windows no longer featured their trim level engravings.


Late Hours

Valet parking is commonly an option at high-class restaurants, banquet facilities and hotels. At hotels, valets need to be ready to retrieve a guest's vehicle at all hours of the day. Typically, restaurants and banquet halls only offer valet parking during evening hours, when there's a dinner rush or many people attending a wedding or party. These aren't the usual nine-to-five hours for valet workers. At restaurants and banquet halls, valets have to be on hand until closing time, which often borders on 2 a.m.


Who was the first nosy parker?

Q: I’m curious about the origin of the expression “nosy parker.” Could it be referring to a nosy (or is it a “nosey”?) hotel valet who looks through your glove compartment, etc., after parking your car?

A: Well, an overly curious parking attendant could be referred to as a “nosy parker,” but the phrase has been around a lot longer than valet parking.

As it turns out, nobody knows how “nosy parker” originated, though there are several dubious theories.

The most often-heard suggestion is that the term is a reference to Matthew Parker, a 16th-century Archbishop of Canterbury who was known for poking his nose into the qualifications and activities of his clergy.

The big problem here is that Parker had been dead for several centuries before the term “nosy parker” appeared in print for the first time.

The earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary is from the May 1890 issue of Belgravia Magazine: “You’re a askin’ too many questions for me, there’s too much of Mr. Nosey Parker about you.”

Eric Partridge’s Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English says the phrase may be a reference to peeping Toms or nose-twitching rabbits at the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park in 1851. But Partridge offers no evidence to support either idea.

Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable has yet another theory—that “nosy parker” evolved from “nose poker” (someone who pokes his nose in other people’s business). But Oxford has no evidence of the term “nose poker.”

The OED, which doesn’t mention any of these theories, says in an etymology note that the phrase is a combination of the adjective “nosy” and the surname “Parker.”

The dictionary adds that a 1907 postcard with the caption “The adventures of Nosey Parker” is apparently using the phrase “with reference to a (probably fictitious) individual taken as the type of someone inquisitive or prying.”

As more and more archives are digitized, we may eventually find out who this “(probably fictitious) individual” was.

How, you ask, is this inquisitive adjective spelled? Most of the dictionaries we’ve checked list “nosy” as the primary spelling, with “nosey” as a variant. The “e”-less version is far more common (twice as many hits on Google).

By the way, the earliest citation for “valet parking” in the OED dates from 1960, though some companies that offer valet parking say the use of attendants to park cars at hotels and restaurants originated in the 1930s.

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This website is all about the parking industry. But what is parking and what do people in the parking industry actually do? This page is all about parking and everything around that subject. It's created as an ongoing process: This page is never finished and we will keep adding more and more information to it. Now, let's talk about parking. On Wikipedia the word &lsquoparking&rsquo is defined as:

&ldquoThe act of stopping a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied&rdquo*
*Source of quote: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parking

In this case, we&rsquore talking about car parking. You can park your car at a parking space. These parking spaces can be on several locations: In a parking lot, a parking garage, on the side of the street, and so on. In every city and on every street there are rules for parking. For example, often you are allowed to park your car on the side of the street, but sometimes you have to pay for parking, are only allowed to park for a short period of time or are not allowed to park at all. These rules are called parking restrictions.

Parking spaces are very important to cities. A city must have enough parking spaces to provide their residents and their visitors a place to park their car. Since cars are a main factor in transportation, a city must meet the needs of the drivers. If people can&rsquot find a place to park, or if they have to pay too much for parking, these people probably won&rsquot come back to your city to do some more shopping, dining or spending money in any other way. Also residents must have enough place to park their car nearby their house and workplace.


Dallas Love Field Airport

Dallas Love Field was commissioned on October 19, 1917 as a training base for the U.S. Army Air Service during World War I. The airport is named for Army Lieutenant Moss Lee Love, who perished during flight training. Lt. Love had no connection to Dallas, but it was the norm at the time to honor Army aviators who perished in flight.

After World War I, Love Field continued as a military air base until the City of Dallas purchased it in 1927, clearing the way for civilian use. Its first paved runways were completed in 1932 and commercial air service grew throughout the 1930s.

The airport played an extensive role for the military once again during the World War II years of the early 1940s and then saw expansive growth as a passenger airport during the post-war boom. By 1965, the airport had new terminals and its second parallel runway.

In 1964, the FAA mandated the cities of Dallas and Fort Worth come to an agreement to build a major airport to serve the entire DFW Metroplex. Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport’s opening in 1974 came on the heels of Love Field’s busiest year to date in 1973 and was meant to effectively end passenger service at Love Field.

The airport saw its slowest year in 1974 and even opened an ice rink and video arcade as the Love Entertainment Complex to maintain revenue. Love Field appeared on its way to closure, but the founding of Southwest Airlines in 1971 continued to breathe life in to Love Field as the fledgling airline refused to move its operations to DFW Airport.

After a lengthy legal battle among multiple parties, the Wright Amendment was instituted to restrict the operations of passenger aircraft at Dallas Love Field to locations within Texas and the neighboring states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma and New Mexico.

The stifling regulations of the Wright Amendment remained law until an effort was begun to repeal it in 2005. Certain restrictions were lifted, and the entire Wright Amendment was allowed to expire on October 13, 2014.

Love Field immediately saw drastic passenger growth and today is the 31st-busiest airport in the United States and busiest medium-hub airport despite its federally mandated cap of 20 gates and barring of international travel. In 2018, Love Field surpassed 8 million enplaned passengers for the first time.


How it Started

From a small gathering of 13 balloons in 1972, the Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta has grown to become the largest balloon event in the world. Held each year during the first week in October, the Balloon Fiesta now features about 600 balloons and 700 pilots.
The first gathering of 13 balloons in 1972 was held in the parking lot of Coronado Center Mall in Albuquerque. The following year, 13 countries took part in the "First World Hot Air Balloon Championship", the world's largest ballooning event, held at the New Mexico State Fairgrounds. By 1978 Albuquerque was playing host to 273 entries. The number of balloons steadily increased, with 600 in 1988 and 903 balloons in 1999. The organizers of the Balloon Fiesta registered more than 1000 balloons in the year 2000. Due to shrinking landing site availability, the number of hot air balloons is now limited.
In 1972 there were about 10,000 guests that viewed the first Balloon Fiesta. Hundreds of thousands of guests visit Balloon Fiesta each year, and hundreds of thousands more fans watch the balloons from outlying areas and on TV. New in 2017, fans around the world can now watch the event online via Balloon Fiesta Live!, a professionally-produced live stream, with expert commentary, of all the flying events. To accommodate the increases in balloons and guests, the Balloon Fiesta&rsquos home field has grown from a corner in a mall parking lot, to its present home, a permanent site that is more than 350 acres.
The Balloon Fiesta has not only grown in numbers of balloons and guests but in the number of unique events as well. In addition to the spectacular Mass Ascensions, the Balloon Fiesta has added the annual Balloon Glow, the Night Magic Glow&trade, and the Special Shape Rodeo&trade. These additions have grown to become guest favorites. To preserve the magic of these spectacular events, it is estimated that more than 25 million still photographs are taken of the Balloon Fiesta, repeatedly earning it the title &ldquothe world&rsquos most photographed event.&rdquo
Gas balloons became part of the Balloon Fiesta in 1981. In 1993, and again in 1999, AIBF hosted the annual Coupe de Gordon Bennett, the world's oldest and most prestigious gas balloon race that dates back to 1912. In 1994, The Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta hosted the 8th World Gas Balloon Championship and in 1995, Balloon Fiesta launched America's Challenge Gas Balloon Race, a distance race that dates back to 1912.

The genesis of the 1st balloon Fiesta occurred while planning the KOB 50th Anniversary party the following spring, Susan Johnson, then promotional director for the station, was looking for a centerpiece of her own to celebrate this important birthday for the station. She found Sid Cutter flying the "club" balloon which had been purchased by the founders of the Albuquerque Aerostat Ascension Association (now the largest local balloon club in the world). The relationship between KOB and Sid Cutter was cemented and the idea of a balloon race began to take shape.
With very little time, but an enormous wealth of enthusiasm, Sid Cutter, Don, and Mike Draper and Tom Rutherford of KOB, set about putting together the largest balloon race in the world at that time, and invited 21 balloons to attend the event.
Last-minute cancellations and a miserable storm in the Midwest limited the participants to 13 balloons, but each and everyone was given red carpet treatment and put on a show for some 10,000-20,000 spectators that Albuquerque would never forget. The pilots came from Arizona, California, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, and Texas and they left with the impression that Albuquerque was a wonderful place to fly and that it had about the most hospitable bunch of people you'd ever want to find.

Milestones
1972- 13 balloons gather at Coronado Center to celebrate KOB&rsquos 50th Anniversary
1973- Albuquerque hosts the First World Hot Air Balloon Championship at the Fairgrounds
1975- Event moves from February to October and from Fairgrounds to Simms Field
1976- AIBF Incorporates as a non-profit
1978- First KeyGrab competition
1979- Number of balloons tops 300
1980- First appearance of Parachutists
1981- First Gas Balloon race, Cutter Field is a new launch area
1984- Park N Ride begins (Coronado only)
1986- Fiesta Park (Alameda and Paseo del Norte) launch site with snow on the last day
1987- First Balloon Glow
1988- Last Fiesta Gas Balloon Race, number of hot air balloons-600
1989- First Special Shapes Rodeo
1992- Kodak becomes title sponsor at 21st Balloon Fiesta
1993- 37th Gordon Bennett Gas Balloon Race
1994-8th World Gas Balloon Championship
1995- First America&rsquos Challenge Gas Balloon Race
1996- 25th Balloon Fiesta, First Dawn Patrol Show, Sivage Thomas &ldquoHouse Grab&rdquo move to current Balloon Fiesta Park field
1997- First Flight of Nations and Night Magic Glow
1999- 43rd Gordon Bennett Gas Balloon Race
2000- 1019 balloons registered, a launch record
2001- NM Challenge event, last year for Kodak as title sponsor, launch field is completely grassed, President&rsquos compound RV lot becomes available to the public
2002- Admission raised to $5, parking is also $5
2003- Gondola Club created, Holiday Fiesta event
2004- First Fiesta Challenge, 2nd and last year for Holiday Fiesta
2005- 49th Gordon Bennett Gas Balloon Race, Albuquerque Aloft begins
2006- Posters produced by AIBF instead of Procreations, last Fiesta Challenge, Chain Saw Carving begins
2008- 52nd Gordon Bennett Gas Balloon Race
2009- Chaser&rsquos Club created, group tours operation comes in-house
2011- Founder Sid Cutter passes away
2014- First Music Fiesta after years of different artist performances, Sid Cutter Pilots&rsquo Pavilion opens
2017- Balloon Fiesta Live! premiers as a live stream of the entire event
2018- Drone footage part of Balloon Fiesta Live! and marketing program
2020- Entire Balloon Fiesta Postponed due to Public Health concerns


Interpreting Dreams of Shoes

Due to all these complex cultural meanings associated with footwear, shoes have lodged themselves deep into the subconscious world as well. Sometimes shoes will manifest in dreams as our psyches grapple with issues they might signify to us. According to 10,000 Dreams and Traditional Meanings by Edwin Raphael:

  • Dreaming of seeing your shoes "ragged and soiled" symbolizes that you will make enemies due to your unfeeling criticisms.
  • If your shoes are "blackened," the future holds an improvement for your affairs, and an important event that will cause your satisfaction.
  • New shoes in dreams foretell changes which will prove beneficial.
  • If the shoes pinch your feet, you will be the uncomfortable subject of practical jokes.
  • Untied shoes denotes loss, personal conflict, and ill health.
  • Boots that are old and torn indicate sickness and tribulations in your future.
  • Losing your shoes in a dream is a sign of abandonment, desertion, or divorce.
  • Dreaming that the shoes you&aposre wearing are admired by others could be a warning to be wary of becoming too familiar with new acquaintances.
  • Seeing someone else wearing your boots in a dream is a sign that someone will be overtaking the affections of your love interest or romantic partner.
  • A dream of wearing new boots could be a sign of luck, such as a promotion in your professional life.
  • A dream about slippers foretells that you will soon enter an unfortunate alliance for example, you may become romantically involved with someone who is married, resulting in scandal and emotional difficulty.

In Greek culture, empty shoes can also be a sign of death, much like a funeral wreath for some Americans. Empty shoes places outside of a Greek home would tell others that there had been a death in the family—namely, that someone&aposs son had died in battle. At a memorial for the tenth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, 3,000 empty shoes were used to commemorate those who had died. Dreams of empty shoes could hold a similar meaning.


Watch the video: WHAT is Valet Parking?