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Paul Patterson was born in 1878. He became the publisher of the Baltimore Sun. It has been argued by Jennet Conant, the author of The Irregulars: Roald Dahl and the British Spy Ring in Wartime Washington (2008) that Ernest Cuneo who worked for British Security Coordination, was "empowered to feed select British intelligence items about Nazi sympathizers and subversives" to friendly journalists who "were stealth operatives in their campaign against Britain's enemies in America". Cuneo also worked closely with editors and publishers who were supporters of American intervention into the Second World War. This included Patterson, Arthur Hays Sulzberger (New York Times), Helen Rogers Reid (New York Herald Tribune), Henry Luce (Time Magazine and Life Magazine), Dorothy Schiff (New York Post) and Ralph Ingersoll (Picture Magazine).
H. L. Mencken , who was a regular contributor as well as being on the board of the Baltimore Sun, resigned in 1941 because of what he considered to be the newspaper's "wildly pro-British bias". He later recalled: "I told Patterson that, in my judgment, the English had found him an easy mark, and made a monkey out of him. He did not attempt to dispute the main fact." Mencken wrote in his diary in October 1945: "From the first to the last they (the newspapers owned by Patterson) were official organs and nothing more, and taking one day with another they were official organs of England rather than of the United States."
Paul Patterson died in 1952.
From the first to the last they (the newspapers owned by Patterson) were official organs and nothing more, and taking one day with another they were official organs of England rather than of the United States.
Dec. 17, 1951: “We Charge Genocide” Petition Submitted to United Nations
On December 17, 1951, Paul Robeson and William Patterson submitted a petition from the Civil Rights Congress (CRC) to the United Nations. Titled, “We Charge Genocide: The Crime of Government Against the Negro People,” the petition was signed by almost 100 U.S. intellectuals and activists. Robeson led a delegation to present the document at U.N. Headquarters in New York, while CRC Secretary Patterson delivered it to a U.N. meeting in Paris.
W. E. B. Du Bois was scheduled to accompany Patterson to Paris, but the U.S. State Department prevented him from leaving the country.
The book-length petition documented hundreds of lynching cases and other forms of brutality and discrimination, evincing a clear pattern of government inaction and complicity.
It charged that in the 85 years since the end of slavery more than 10,000 African Americans were known to have been lynched (an average of more than 100 per year), and that the full number can never be known because the murders are often unreported.
The petition cited the UN’s definition of genocide: “Any intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, racial, or religious group is genocide.” The petition concluded therefore, that
. . .the oppressed Negro citizens of the United States, segregated, discriminated against, and long the target of violence, suffer from genocide as the result of the consistent, conscious, unified policies of every branch of government. If the General Assembly acts as the conscience of mankind and therefore acts favorably on our petition, it will have served the cause of peace.
With the Cold War raging, the U.S. government maneuvered to prevent the United Nations from formally debating or even considering the charges brought in the petition. Working behind the scenes, they were able to prevent any discussion of the petition by the U.N. Commission on Human Rights.
When one of the American delegates to the U.N. criticized William Patterson for “attacking your government,” Patterson replied, “It’s your government. It’s my country. I am fighting to save my country’s democratic principles.”
The U.S. corporate media gave scant coverage to the petition or the crimes it documents. The CRC is labeled a “Communist front organization,” and the few Government officials who comment on the petition describe it as “Communist propaganda.” Elsewhere in the world, however, it was well received and extensively covered in the press. In Europe, Africa, and Asia where the U.S. is competing against the Soviet Union and China for political influence, the document weakens American “Free World” claims and its assertion of global moral leadership, particularly among nonwhite peoples struggling against colonial rule.
As the Black Freedom Movement gathered strength in the following years, Cold War geo-politics influenced Washington’s reaction to major events like the Sit-ins, Freedom Rides, ‘Ole Miss, and so on.
On his return to the United States, Patterson’s passport was seized by the State Department so he could no longer speak to foreign audiences about the denial of human rights endured by African Americans and other people of color.
Robeson too was prevented from leaving the country. They and other CRC leaders were harassed and persecuted by the FBI and other federal agencies for the rest of their lives.
Learn more from the related resources below.
How to Make Amends: A Lesson on Reparations
Teaching Activity. By Ursula Wolfe-Rocca, Alex Stegner, Chris Buehler, Angela DiPasquale, and Tom McKenna.
Students meet dozens of advocates and recipients of reparations from a variety of historical eras to grapple with the possibility of reparations now and in the future.
Burning Tulsa: The Legacy of Black Dispossession
Article. By Linda Christensen. If We Knew Our History Series.
Students need to learn the hidden history of the 1921 Tulsa Massacre and how this links to racial wealth inequality today.
Disguising Imperialism: How Textbooks Get the Cold War Wrong and Dupe Students
Article. By Ursula Wolfe-Rocca. If We Knew Our History series.
Too often, when it comes to U.S. Cold War interventions, the official curriculum is sanitized and disjointed, leaving students ill-equipped to make sense out of their nation’s global bullying.
Remembering Red Summer — Which Textbooks Seem Eager to Forget
The racist riots of 1919 happened 100 years ago this summer. Confronting a national epidemic of white mob violence, 1919 was a time when Black people defended themselves, fought back, and demanded full citizenship in thousands of acts of courage and daring, small and large, individual and collective.
Ballad of an American: A Graphic Biography of Paul Robeson
Book – Non-fiction. Written and illustrated by Sharon Rudahl. Edited by Paul Buhle and Lawrence Ware. 2020. 142 pages. The first-ever graphic biography of Paul Robeson charts Robeson’s career as a singer, actor, scholar, athlete, and activist who achieved global fame.
Eslanda: The Large and Unconventional Life of Mrs. Paul Robeson
Book — Non-fiction. By Barbara Ransby. 2013. 373 pages.
This biography of cosmopolitan anthropologist Eslanda Cardozo Goode Robeson explores her influence on her husband’s early career, their open marriage, and her life as a prolific journalist, a tireless advocate of women’s rights, and an outspoken anti-colonial and antiracist activist.
News for All the People: The Epic Story of Race and the American Media
Book – Non-fiction. By Juan González and Joseph Torres. 2011.
The history of media in the United States, through the lens of race.
June 12, 1956: Paul Robeson Testifies Before HUAC
Paul Robeson testified before the House Committee on Un-American Activities, where he was questioned about his political speech, associations, and party affiliation.
[Paul Patterson Telling a Story Onstage]
Photograph of Paul Patterson, from Crane, telling a story onstage at the Texas Folklife Festival in San Antonio, Texas. Wearing a cowboy hat, a patterned shirt, and black frame glasses, he is sitting in a rocking chair and speaking into a microphone. Two empty rocking chairs are on either side of him.
1 photograph : negative, b&w 35 mm.
Creator: Unknown. [1982-08-05..1982-08-08].
This photograph is part of the collection entitled: Texas Cultures Online and was provided by the UT San Antonio Libraries Special Collections to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. More information about this photograph can be viewed below.
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UT San Antonio Libraries Special Collections
UTSA Libraries Special Collections seeks to build, preserve and provide access to our distinctive research collections documenting the diverse histories and development of San Antonio and South Texas. Our collecting priorities include the history of women and gender in Texas, the history of Mexican Americans, activists/activism, the history of the African American and LGBTQ communities in our region, the Tex-Mex food industry, and urban planning.
The Walton Hatch Gamefowl History
Henry Wortham was working for Jack Walton at the time that Jack decided to sell out. Henry knew Manuel Massey who was feeding for Paul Harvey, a professional wager from Odessa, Texas. Henry asked Manuel to form a plan with him in order to get Paul to buy the fowl. Manuel talked Paul into purchasing 12 cocks from Jack. Henry tied pieces of string on the cages of 12 double barrel aces.
Ehen Paul and Manuel selected the 12 cocks, Manuel picked only the ones with strings on their cages that Henry planted.
This was unknown to both Jack Walton and Paul Harvey.
After the 12 cocks were selected by Manuel, Jack told Paul that he didn't know about his feeding ability but he selected the 12 best cocks he owned, besides the brood cocks! Manuel got he cocks ready for the Sunset tournament. They won easily. Paul Harvey and Manuel won several other big tournaments shortly thereafter. This made Paul and Massey the top cock fighter that year.
This all happened in 1952. The wins convinced Paul to purchase the rest of Jack Walton's fowl. Paul paid Jack the sum of $20,000.Paul Harvey hired professional union carpenters to build pens for the fowl. Carpenters worked around the clock getting the pens on Paul's estate ready.
When the pens were completed, Paul and Massey drove to Dallas with boxes for the cocks and u-haul trailers for the hens and little ones.
During this time Henry was selling to others some good Walton Hatch to others unknown to Paul. I had heard that some of these cockfighters were Clarence Stewart, Ray Hoskins, Richard Bates, and the Everette brothers of Hood County red fame. Harold Wells ended up with the "Bone Crusher" cock that was one of the original 12 cocks. Harold started a family of Bone Crushers that became a major force at the Jal, NM pit ran by Tommy Booth.
Over a period of 20 to 30 years. Paul Harvey sold many Walton Hatch. At the time he decided to sell all of the Walton Fowl. Bill Patterson bought the best of what he had left. Bill still raises and fights the Walton Hatch fowl. I have also had a few of this splendid old time , hard hitting, never quit, bone crushing fowl.
The Walton hatch if inbred over a long period of time will come spangle with pea colored legs, red eyes, and large bones. Their temperament is nasty. The Waltons will put gameness and hitting power into any breed. Also they will add bone size if your breed is coming small.
To finish the story Paul Harvey bought the Percy Flowers blue face bloodline and continued to win derbies until his death. Bill Lisenbee purchased the remaining Blueface fowl at Paul's death. If you ever owned a Walton Hatch you will never stop breeding a few because of their gameness and tremendous power.
Paul Patterson had his own perfect legacy for Tomcats
Speaking of perfect records, Ashland once upon a time had a coach who knew a little bit about that subject.
Paul Patterson, who left for Taylor University after winning four consecutive 16th Region boys basketball championships at Ashland in 1979, retired in 2013 after winning 734 collegiate basketball games.
Coach Paul Patterson during his coaching days at Taylor University in Upland, Ind.
Those are some amazing numbers, but Patterson’s impact on the 16th Region was enormous, too. He was 44-0 against region competition, a mark that may never be duplicated. Patterson’s trademark man-to-man defense became the model for others and soon became this region’s calling card. It’s not much of a stretch to say he changed the way basketball was played here.
The Tomcats’ best season under Patterson was in 1976-77, when Ashland posted a 30-2 record that ended with a loss in the state semifinals. Jeff Kovach, Jim Harkins and Mark Swift were key players on a team that simply made opponents look helpless.
His well-disciplined teams were feared because of the tenacity that he instilled in them.
Patterson left after the 1979 season even though the roster was loaded with size and talent, a team that seemed perfectly suited for his style of play. Ernie Simpson took the baton from Patterson and won the regional championship for a fifth consecutive year, although the run of regional victories ended with a loss to Holy Family in the 64th District finals.
As unimaginable as it seems today, the fanbase wasn’t always happy with Patterson even though he won four regional championships in a row and never lost to a region foe in the regular season. The style of play was thought to be too methodical for fans who were used to three decades of running and gunning.
There was none of that with Patterson’s style of basketball. His teams worked for the highest percentage shot possible, most of the time a layup or short jumper, on every grinding possession. The recipe for success included limiting opponents to under 50 points a game. His 1976-77 team did just that, limiting foes to 48.3 per game.
Here’s an interesting tournament fact. In the four years that Patterson coached the Tomcats to the regional title, only once was an Ashland played named tournament MVP – Harkins in 1976. The other years the MVPs went to David Rowe of Fairview (1977), Mark Dingess of Boyd County (1978) and Dave Layne of Holy Family (1979).
Coach Paul Patterson, far right second row, with his first Ashland Tomcat team in 1975-76.
Patterson went 91-35 in his four seasons as the Tomcats’ head coach. His teams were always prepared and fundamentally solid at every position. Their lockdown man-to-man defense was, in a word, vicious.
He took that same coaching philosophy to Taylor University, where he has retired after becoming the second-winningest coach in Indiana college history behind you-know-who. He is one of the winningest coaches in basketball history period.
Patterson won 15 conference championships and made 14 appearances in the NAIA national tournament. He was a 12-time conference Coach of the Year and the NAIA national Coach of the Year in 1991 when he led Taylor to a school-record 34 victories and the program’s only Final Four berth.
Patterson, who is a member of the NAIA, Hanover College and Grant County (Ind.) halls of fame, leaves Taylor after amassing 28 winning seasons and 23 campaigns with 20-or-more victories. He also guided Taylor through one of the most successful 10-year stretches with 10 straight seasons of at least 25 victories from 1984 to 1994. That span put Taylor in the company of UCLA, UNLV and Lipscomb as the only men’s basketball programs to accomplish that feat.
Along the way, Patterson coached 24 NAIA All-Americans and boasts an extensive coaching tree that includes collegiate and high school coaches around the nation.
It was also during Patterson’s tenure that Taylor started its Silent Night game.
Every year, the Friday before final exams, Taylor University has the Silent Night game where students remain quiet until the 10th point is scored and then erupt in wild and boisterous cheering. In the late moments of the game, “Silent Night” is sung by everyone in the gym. A former assistant coach came up with the idea in the late 1980s and it was a packed event by the mid-to-late 1990s.
But if anybody was ever born to coach, it was Paul Patterson, and he proved it both in Upland, Ind., and Ashland, Ky.
His imprint on 16th Region basketball history will remain with us forever.
(1951) We Charge Genocide
Out of the inhuman black ghettos of American cities, out of the cotton plantations of the South, comes this record of mass slayings on the basis of race, of lives deliberately warped and distorted by the willful creation of conditions making for premature death, poverty and disease., It is a record that calls aloud for condemnation, for an end to these terrible injustices that constitute a daily and ever-increasing violation of the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
It is sometimes incorrectly thought that genocide means the complete and definitive destruction of a race or people. The Genocide Convention, however, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 9, 1948, defines genocide as any killings on the basis of race, or, in it specific words, as “killing members of the group.” Any intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, racial, ethnic or religious group is genocide, according to the Convention. Thus, the Convention states, “causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group,” is genocide as well as “killing members of the group.”
We maintain, therefore, that the oppressed Negro citizens of the United States, segregated, discriminated against and long the target of violence, suffer from genocide as the result of the consistent, conscious, unified policies of every branch of government.
The Civil Rights Congress has prepared and submits this petition to the General Assembly of the United Nations on behalf of the Negro people in the interest of peace and democracy, charging the Government of the United States of America with violation of the Charter of the United Nations and the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
We believe that in issuing this document we are discharging an historic responsibility to the American people, as well as rendering a service of inestimable value to progressive mankind. We speak of the American people because millions of white Americans in the ranks of labor and the middle class, and particularly those who live in the southern states and are often contemptuously called poor whites, are themselves suffering to an ever-greater degree from the consequences of the Jim Crow segregation policy of government in its relations with Negro citrines. We speak of progressive mankind because a policy of discrimination at home must inevitably create racist commodities for export abroad-must inevitably tend toward war.
We have not dealt here with the cruel and inhuman policy of this government toward the people of Puerto Rico. Impoverished and reduced to a semi-literate state through the wanton exploitation and oppression by gigantic American concerns, through the merciless frame-up and imprisonment of hundred of its sons and daughter, this colony of the rulers of the United States reveals in all its stark nakedness the moral bankruptcy of this government and those who control its home and foreign policies.
History has shown that the racist theory of government of the U.S.A. is not the private affair of Americans, but the concern of mankind everywhere.
It is our hope, and we fervently believe that it was the hope and aspiration of every black American whose voice was silenced forever through premature death at the hands of racist-minded hooligans or Klan terrorists, that the truth recorded here will be made known to the world that it will speak with a tongue of fire loosing an unquenchable moral crusade, the universal response to which will sound the death knell of all racist theories.
We have scrupulously kept within the purview of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide which is held to embrace those “acts committed with intent to destroy in whole or in part a national, ethical, racial or religious group as such.”
We particularly pray for the most careful reading of this material by those who have always regarded genocide as a term to be used only where the acts of terror evinced an intent to destroy a whole nation. We further submit that this Convention on Genocide is, by virtue of our avowed acceptance of the Covenant of the United Nations, an inseparable part of the law of the United States of America.
According to international law, and according to our own law, the Genocide Convention, as well as the provisions of the United Nations Charter, supersedes, negates and displaces all discriminatory racist law on the books of the United States and the several states.
The Hitler crimes, of awful magnitude, beginning as they did against the heroic Jewish people, finally drenched the world in blood, and left a record of maimed and tortured bodies, and devastated areas such as mankind had never seen before. Justice Robert H. Jackson, who now sits upon the United States Supreme Court bench, described this holocaust to the world in the powerful language with which he opened the Nuremberg trials of the Nazi leaders. Every word he voiced against the monstrous Nazi beast applies with equal weight, we believe, to those who are guilty of the crimes herein set forth.
Here we present the documented crimes of federal, state and municipal governments in the United States of America, the dominant nation in the United Nations, against 15,000,000 of its own nationals—the Negro people of the United States. These crimes are of the gravest concern to mankind. The General Assembly of the United Nations, by reason of the United Nations Charter and the Genocide Convention, itself is invested with power to receive this indictment and act on it.
The proof of this face is its action upon the similar complaint of the Government of India against South Africa.
We call upon the United Nations to act and to call the government of the United States to account.
We believe that the test of the basic goals of a foreign policy is inherent in the manner in which a government treats its own nationals and is not to be found in the lofty platitudes that pervade so many treaties or constitutions. The essence lies not in the form, but rather, in the substance.
The Civil Rights Congress is a defender of constitutional liberties, human rights, and of peace. It is the implacable enemy of every creed, philosophy, social system or way of life that denies democratic rights or one iota of human dignity to any human being because of color, creed, nationality or political belief.
We ask all men and women of good will to unite to realize the objective set forth in the summary and prayer concluding this petition. We believe that this program can go far toward ending the threat of a third world war. We believe it can contribute to the establishment of a people’s democracy on a universal scale.
Bit may we add as a final note that the Negro people desire equality of opportunity in this land where their contributions to the economic. Political and social developments have been of splendid proportions and in quality second to none. They will accept nothing less, and continued efforts to force them into the category of second-class citizens through force and violence, through segregation, racist law and an institutionalized oppression, can only end in disaster for those responsible.
Respectfully submitted by the Civil Rights Congress as a service to the peoples of the world, and particularly to the lovers of peace and democracy in the United States of America
William L. Patterson
National Executive Secretary Civil Rights Congress
To the General Assembly of the United Nations:
The responsibility of being the first in history to charge the government of the United States of America with the crime of genocide is not one your petitioners take lightly. The responsibility is particularly grave when citizens must charge their own government with mass murder of its own nationals, with institutionalized oppression and persistent slaughter of the Negro people in the United States on a basis of “race,” a crime abhorred by mankind and prohibited by the conscience of the world as expressed in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 9, 1948.
Genocide Leads to Fascism and to War
If our duty is unpleasant it is historically necessary both for the welfare of the American people and for the peace of the world. We petition as American patriots, sufficiently anxious to save our countrymen and all mankind from the horrors of war to shoulder a task as painful as it is important. We cannot forget Hitler’s demonstration that genocide at home can become wider massacre abroad, that domestic genocide develops into the larger genocide that is predatory war. The wrongs of which we complain are so much the expression of predatory American reaction and its government that civilization cannot ignore them nor risk their continuance without courting its own destruction. We agree with those members of the General Assembly who declared that genocide is a matter of world concern because its practice imperils world safety.
But if the responsibility of your petitioners is great, it is dwarfed by the responsibility of those guilty of the crime we charge. Seldom in human annals has so iniquitous a conspiracy been so gilded with the trappings of respectability. Seldom has mass murder on the score of “race” been so sanctified by law, so justified by those who demand free elections abroad even as they kill their fellow citizens who demand free elections at home. Never have so many individuals been so ruthlessly destroyed amid many tributes to the sacredness of the individual. The distinctive trait of this genocide is a cant that mouths aphorisms of Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence even as it kills.
The genocide of which we complain is as much a fact as gravity. The whole world knows of it. The proof is in every day’s newspapers, in every one’s sight and hearing in these United States. In one form or another it has been practiced for more than three hundred years although never with such sinister implications for the welfare and peace of the world as at present. Its very familiarity disguises its horror. It is a crime so embedded in law, so explained away by specious rationale, so hidden by talk of liberty, that even the conscience of the tender minded is sometimes dulled. Yet the conscience of mankind cannot be beguiled from its duty by the pious phrases and the deadly legal euphemisms with which its perpetrators seek to transform their guilt into high moral purpose.
Killing Members of the Group
Your petitioners will prove that the crime of which we complain is in fact genocide within the terms and meaning of the United Nations Convention providing for the prevention and punishment of this crime. We shall submit evidence, tragically voluminous, of “acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial or religious group as such,” – in this case the 15,000,000 Negro people of the United States.
We shall submit evidence proving “killing members of the group,” in violation of Article II of the Convention. We cite killings by police, killings by incited gangs, killings at night by masked men, killings always on the basis of “race,” killings by the Ku Klux Klan, that organization which is charted by the several states as a semi-official arm of government and even granted the tax exemptions of a benevolent society.
Our evidence concerns the thousands of Negroes who over the years have been beaten to death on chain gangs and in the back rooms of sheriff’s offices, in the cells of county jails, in precinct police stations and on city streets, who have been framed and murdered by sham legal forms and by a legal bureaucracy. It concerns those Negroes who have been killed, allegedly for failure to say “sir” or tip their hats or move aside quickly enough, or, more often, on trumped up charges of “rape,’” but in reality for trying to vote or otherwise demanding the legal and inalienable rights and privileges of United States citizenship formally guaranteed them by the Constitution of the United States, rights denied them on the basis of “race,” in violation of the Constitution of the United States, the United Nations Charter, and the Genocide Convention.
We shall offer proof of economic genocide, or in the words of the Convention, proof of “deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its destruction in whole or in part.” We shall prove that such conditions so swell the infant and maternal death rate and the death rate from disease, that the American Negro is deprived, when compared with the remainder of the population of the United States, of eight years of life on the average.
Further we shall show a deliberate national oppression of these 15,000,000 Negro Americans on the basis of “race” to perpetuate these “conditions of life.” Negroes are the last hired and the first fired. They are forced into city ghettos or their rural equivalents. They are segregated legally or through sanctioned violence into filthy, disease-bearing housing, and deprived by law of adequate medical care and education. From birth to death, Negro Americans are humiliated and persecuted, in violation of the Charter and Convention. They are forced by threat of violence and imprisonment into inferior, segregated accommodations, into jim crow busses, jim crow trains, jim crow hospitals, im crow schools, jim crow theaters, jim crow restaurants, jim crow housing, and finally into jim crow cemeteries.
We shall prove that the object of this genocide, as of all genocide, is the perpetuation of economic and political power by the few through the destruction of political protest by the many. Its method is to demoralize and divide an entire nation its end is to increase the profits and unchallenged control by a reactionary clique. We shall show that those responsible for this crime are not the humble but the so-called great, not the American people but their misleaders, not the convict but the robed judge, not the criminal but the police, not the spontaneous mob but organized terrorists licensed and approved by the state to incite to a Roman holiday.
We shall offer evidence that this genocide is not plotted in the dark but incited over the radio into the ears of millions, urged in the glare of public forums by Senators and Governors. It is offered as an article of faith by powerful political organizations, such as the Dixiecrats, and defended by influential newspapers, all in violation of the Untied Nations charter and the Convention forbidding genocide.
This proof does not come from the enemies of the white supremacists but from their own mouths, their own writings, their political resolutions, their racist laws, and from photographs of their handiwork. Neither Hitler nor Goebbels wrote obscurantist racial incitements more voluminously or viciously than do their American counterparts, nor did such incitements circulate in Nazi mails any more than they do in the mails of the United States.
Through this and other evidence we shall prove this crime of genocide is the result of a massive conspiracy, more deadly in that it is sometimes “understood” rather than expressed, a part of the mores of the ruling class often concealed by euphemisms, but always directed to oppressing the Negro people. Its members are so well-drilled, so rehearsed over the generations, that they can carry out their parts automatically and with a minimum of spoken direction. They have inherited their plot and their business is but to implement it daily so that it works daily. This implementation is sufficiently expressed in decision and statute, in depressed wages, in robbing millions of the vote and millions more of the land, and in countless other political and economic facts, as to reveal definitively the existence of a conspiracy backed by reactionary interests in which are meshed all the organs of the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches of government. It is manifest that a people cannot be consistently killed over the years on the basis of “race” – and more than 10,000 Negroes have so suffered death – cannot be uniformly segregated, despoiled, impoverished, and denied equal protection before the law, unless it is the result of the deliberate, all-pervasive policy of government and those who control it.
Emasculation of Democracy
We shall show, more particularly, how terror, how “killing members of the group,” in violation of Article II of the Genocide Convention, has been used to prevent the Negro people from voting in huge and decisive areas of the United States in which they are the preponderant population, thus dividing the whole American people, emasculating mass movements for democracy and securing the grip of predatory reaction on the federal, state, county and city governments. We shall prove that the crimes of genocide offered for your action and the world’s attention have in fact been incited, a punishable crime under Article III of the Convention, often by such officials as Governors, Senators, Judges and peace officers whose phrases about white supremacy and the necessity of maintaining inviolate a white electorate resulted in bloodshed as surely as more direct incitement.
We shall submit evidence showing the existence of a mass of American law, written as was Hitler’s law solely on the basis of “race,” providing for segregation and otherwise penalizing the Negro people, in violation not only of Articles II and III of the Convention but also in violation of the Charter of the United Nations. Finally we shall offer proof that a conspiracy exists in which the Government of the United States, its Supreme Court, its Congress, it Executive branch, as well as the various state, county and municipal governments, consciously effectuate policies which result I the crime of genocide being consistently and constantly practiced against the Negro people of the United States.
The Negro Petitioners
Many of your petitioners are Negro citizens to whom the charges herein described are not mere words. They are facts felt on our bodies, crimes inflicted on our dignity. We struggle for deliverance, not without pride in our valor, but we warn mankind that our fate is theirs. We solemnly declare that continuance of this American crime against the Negro people of the United States will strengthen those reactionary American forces driving towards World War III as certainly as the unrebuked Nazi genocide against the Jewish people strengthened Hitler in his successful drive to World War II.
We, Negro petitioners whose communities have been laid waste, whose homes have been burned and looted, whose children have been killed, whose women have been raped, have noted with peculiar horror that the genocidal doctrines and actions of the American white supremacists have already been exported to the colored peoples of Asia. We solemnly warn that a nation which practices genocide against its own nationals may not be long deterred, if it has the power, from genocide elsewhere. White supremacy at home makes for colored massacres abroad. Both reveal contempt for human life in a colored skin. Jellied gasoline in Korea and the lynchers’ faggot at home are connected in more ways than that both result in death by fire. The lyncher and the atom bomber are related. The first cannot murder unpunished and unrebuked without so encouraging the latter that the peace of the world and the lives of millions are endangered. Nor is this metaphysics. The tie binding both is economic profit and political control. It was not without significance that it was President Truman who spoke of the possibility of using the atom bomb on the colored peoples of Asia, that it is American statesmen who prate constantly of “Asiatic hordes.”
“Our Humanity Denied and Mocked”
We Negro petitioners protest this genocide as Negroes and we protest it as Americans, as patriots. We know that no American can be truly free while 15,000,000 other Americans are persecuted on the grounds of “race,” that few Americans can e prosperous while 15,000,000 are deliberately pauperized. Our country can never know true democracy while millions of its citizens are denied the vote on the basis of their color.
But above all we protest this genocide as human beings whose very humanity is denied and mocked. We cannot forget that after Congressman Henderson Lovelace Lanham, of Rome, Georgia, speaking in the halls of Congress, called William L. Paterson, one of the leaders of the Negro people, “a God-damned black son-of-bitch,” he added, “We gotta keep the black apes down.” We cannot forget it because this is the animating sentiment of the white supremacists, of a powerful segment of American life. We cannot forget that in many American states it is a crime for a white person to marry a Negro on the racist theory that Negroes are “inherently inferior as an immutable fact of Nature.” The whole institution of segregation, which is training for killing, education for genocide, is based on the Hitler-like theory of the “inherent inferiority of the Negro.” The tragic fact of segregation is the basis for the statement, too often heard after murder, particularly in the South, “Why I think no more of killing a n—-r, than of killing a dog.”
We petition in the first instance because we are compelled to speak by the unending slaughter of Negroes. The fact of our ethnic origin, of which we are proud—our ancestors were building the world’s first civilizations 3,000 years before our oppressors emerged from barbarism in the forests of western Europe—is daily made the signal for segregation and murder. There is infinite variety in the cruelty we will catalogue, but each case has the common denominator of racism. This opening statement is not the place to present our evidence in detail. Still, in this summary of what is to be proved, we believe it necessary to show something of the crux of our case, something of the pattern of genocidal murder, the technique of incitement to genocide, and the methods of mass terror.
Our evidence begins with 1945 and continues to the present. It gains in deadliness and in number of cases almost in direct ratio to the surge towards war. We are compelled to hold to this six years span if this document is to be brought into manageable proportions.
There was a time when racist violence had its center in the South. But as the Negro people spread to the north, east and west seeking to escape the southern hell, the violence, impelled in the first instance by economic motives, followed them, its cause also economic. Once most of the violence against Negroes occurred in the countryside, but that was before the Negro emigrations of the twenties and thirties. Now there is not a great American city from New York to Cleveland or Detroit, from Washington, the nation’s capital, to Chicago, from Memphis to Atlanta or Birmingham, form New Orleans to Los Angeles, that is not disgraced by the wanton killing of innocent Negroes. It is no longer a sectional phenomenon.
Once the classic method of lynching was the rope. Now it is the policeman’s bullet. To many an American the police are the government, certainly its most visible representative. We submit that the evidence suggests that the killing of Negroes has become police policy in the United States and that police policy is the most practical expression of government policy.
Our evidence is admittedly incomplete. It is our hope that the United Nations will complete it. Much of the evidence, particularly of violence, was gained from the files of Negro newspapers, from the labor press, from the annual reports of Negro societies and established Negro year books. A list is appended.
But by far the majority of Negro murders are never recorded, never known except to the perpetrators and the bereaved survivors of the victim. Negro men and women leave their homes and are never seen alive again. Sometimes weeks later their bodies, or bodies thought to be their and often horribly mutilated, are found in the woods or washed up on the shore of a river or lake. This is a well known pattern of American culture. In many sections of the country police do not even bother to record the murder of Negroes. Most white newspapers have a policy of not publishing anything concerning murders of Negroes or assaults upon them. These unrecorded deaths are the rule rather than the exception—thus our evidence, though voluminous, is scanty when compared to the actuality.
We Negro petitioners are anxious that the General Assembly know of our tragic causes celèbres, ignored by the American white press but known nevertheless the world over, but we also whish to inform it of the virtually unknown killed almost casually, as an almost incidental aspect of institutionalized murder.
We want the General Assembly to know of Willie McGee, framed on perjured testimony and murdered in Mississippi because the Supreme Court of the United States refused even to examine vital new evidence proving his innocence. But we also want it to know of the two Negro children, James Lewis, Jr., fourteen years old, and Charles Trudell, fifteen, of Natchez, Mississippi who were electrocuted in 1947, after the Supreme Court of the United States refused to intervene.
We want the General Assembly to know of the martyred Martinsville Seven, who died in Virginia’s electric chair for a rape they never committed, in a state that has never executed a white man for that offense. But we want it to know, too, of the eight Negro prisoners who were shot down and murdered on July 11, 1947 at Brunswick, Georgia, because they refused to work in a snake-infested swamp without boots.
We shall inform the Assembly of the Trenton Six, of Paul Washington, the Daniels cousins, Jerry Newsom, Wesley Robert Wells, of Rosalee Ingram, of John Derrick, of Lieutenant Gilbert, of the Columbia, Tennessee destruction, the Freeport slaughter, the Monroe killings—all important cases I which Negroes have been framed on capital charges or have actually been killed. But we want it also to know of the typical and less known—of William Brown, Louisiana farmer, shot in the back and killed when he was out hunting on July 19, 1947 by a white game warden who casually announced his unprovoked crime by saying, “I just shot a n—r. Let his folks know.” The game warden, one Charles Ventrill, was not even charged with the crime.
Aviation History Book Review: Thunderbolt: Republic P-47
Thunderbolt: Republic P-47, by Dan Patterson (photographs) and Paul Perkins (text), Airlife Publishing, Ltd., England, distributed in the United States by Howell Press, Inc., Charlottesville, Va., 1999, $15.95.
For the many “Jug” devotees and for those who have not yet succumbed to the allure of this brawny beast of World II, here is a collection of photos and text that reflects the combat pugnacity and the rugged beauty of an aerial war machine that could take punishment as well as dish it out in spades. The book includes personal accounts that reflect the wartime activities of the men who prepared the airplanes for combat and those who flew them up high and down very low.
The first half of the book, one of the Airlife Living History Series–World War II, includes 25 archival black-and-white photos that are woven through the text, illustrating the Republic P-47’s wartime contribution as a bomber escort and ground support juggernaut. Then comes a spectacular four-color gallery of restored warbird Thunderbolts, including both overall photos and up-close shots of inside and outside details, as well as photographs of pilots and armorers preparing the airplane for combat.
Readers not previously in awe of this behemoth of World War II fighters will most probably gain through these pages a healthy respect for what the 12,000 examples built did in the air. For those who are already familiar with the Jug or who spent time flying or supporting it, this book will add to their knowledge and reinforce wartime experiences.
Paul Patterson - History
Occupation: Student at Midtown High School
Enemies: Doctor Doom of Earth-5012 ((Tony Stark, later Iron Maniac), the Hulk, Spider-Man, Wendigo, Wolverine
indirectly Black Widow, Captain America, Scarlet Witch, X-23
Known Relatives: Unidentified father (deceased), unidentified mother
Aliases: Child, Golden Boy, Golden Child, the Kid
Base of Operations: New York City, New York
First Appearance: Marvel Team-Up III#1 (January, 2005)
Powers/Abilities: Paul Patterson's body constantly absorbed and stored solar energy for various effects including enhancing his own strength and energy blasts. If his absorption of solar energy was disrupted, such as by a puncture wound, the contents of stored energy in his cells would explode outward. The explosion would cause Paul to uncontrollably teleport to another location. After such an explosion of energy, his body would immediately begin absorbing solar energy.
History: (Marvel Team-Up III#1) - During a day at school, Paul Patterson got into a fight where he easily pushed over an entire group of boys his age. Peter Parker broke up the fight and ordered the boys who started the fight to the principal's office. That afternoon, Paul was confronted by Peter as Spider-Man. Paul immediately deduced that Spider-Man was Peter Parker, but Spider-Man denied the deductions. Paul claimed that he wished he didn't have his mutant abilities, as he was always hurting people. As Spider-Man gave Paul a "pep talk," the X-Man known as Wolverine arrived and unsheathed his claws. Paul quickly went on the defensive and blasted Wolverine into a neighboring building. Recovering quickly, Wolverine lunged at Paul, who blasted Wolverine a second time, with Spider-Man questioning Paul's actions the entire time. Paul claimed that Wolverine was trying to attack them and Spider-Man began to believe him when Wolverine lunged at Paul a third time. Spider-Man managed to web Wolverine up between the two buildings and swung off to get Paul to safety. Upon arriving at Paul's home, Spider-Man was asked inside. When Spidey asked where Paul's parents were, Paul explained that his mom had left a while back but his dad was in his bedroom down the hall. Spider-Man was soon shocked to find that Paul's dad was dead and that Paul was keeping his corpse in the bedroom.
(Marvel Team-Up III#2) - Spider-Man shockingly asked Paul if he had killed his own dad, to which Paul replied with a yes. He then claimed it was an accident caused when he was trying to show his father his manifesting mutant powers. Paul then admitted that even though he had never killed before that day, he enjoyed it. He then attacked Spider-Man by blasting him outside and into Wolverine, who had freed himself from the web and just arrived at Paul's house via the city bus. While Wolverine and Spider-Man decided to team-up against Paul, Paul managed to destroy his way out of his house. He then explained to the superhero duo that the more he used his powers, the stronger he became. As Paul continued his attack on Wolverine and Spider-Man, Wolverine suggested that if he could get close enough to Paul to stab him, that the adamantium in his bones would break the current running through Paul's body and disrupt his power flow. Growing bored with the heroes' lack of action, Paul destroyed his neighbors' home. After saving the people inside the house, Spider-Man jumped and dodged around Paul, drawing his fire enough for Wolverine to get close. Wolverine made his way to Paul and stabbed him in the arm, disrupting Paul's power flow and causing an explosion. With Paul nowhere to be found after the explosion, Wolverine called S. H. I. E. L. D. in to clean up the mess while he and Spider-Man made their way back to their respective homes.
(Marvel Team-Up III#3) - Following the explosion in New York, Paul Patterson materialized elsewhere, where he was found by the Hulk.
(Marvel Team-Up III#4) - Running from the Hulk, Paul Patterson escaped into a nearby forest while firing light blasts at the Hulk. The Hulk eventually caught up to Paul, but was saved by an alternate reality Tony Stark wearing a suit of armor resembling that of Doctor Doom. Once the two had made their way to safety, Paul thanked the alternate Tony Stark for saving him, but Stark replied that there was no need for thanks, as Paul would his ticket back to his own reality.
(Marvel Team-Up III#5) - The alternate Tony Stark captured Paul and fitted him with a collar that prevented him from using his mutant powers while Stark built a device that would allow him to harness Paul's abilities. Stark then explained that Paul's powers came from solar energy and that his body possessed enough stored solar energy to power an entire city for years. Noticing a telephone near him, Paul called Peter Parker's office phone and left a message asking for help. Soon after, Stark hooked Paul up to his newly-built device and turned off the inhibitor collar. An angry Paul immediately tried to escape, generating immense amounts of solar energy. Happy that his device worked, Stark turned the collar back on and bragged to himself that his plan to harness Paul's solar energy to return him to his own reality might actually work. Stark then donned his Doctor Doom armor and told Paul not to worry, that he would be dying for a worthy cause. Just as Stark was speaking with Paul, Spider-Man and X-23 crashed their way into his headquarters, having been fighting each other outside.
(Marvel Team-Up III#6) - Seeing Paul trapped, Spider-Man told him not to worry as he and X-23 battled the alternate Tony Stark. S. H. I. E. L. D. soon got involved, sending Captain America and the Black Widow in to battle Stark, having been informed about him by Mister Fantastic. After subduing the heroes using a neural scrambler, the alternate Stark activated his device, causing Paul to generate immense amounts of his stored solar energy. As a portal opened to Stark's reality, Paul yelled that Spider-Man sucked. Thinking about how Paul was stopped the last time they battled, Spider-Man hurled X-23 at Paul. X-23 stabbed Paul with her claws, once again disrupting Paul's power flow and causing an explosion that levelled the top floors of Stark's base. The explosion once again caused Paul to materialize elsewhere, this time in Canada, where he found himself face-to-face with Wendigo.
(New Avengers#18 (fb), 16-19 - BTS) - He lost his powers on M-Day and the energies removed from him were combined with a number of other mutant energies to empower the powerful being Michael.
Comments: Created by Robert Kirkman, Scott Kolins, and Studio F.
The article in Wizard: The Comics Magazine#172 - "Ex-Mutants" listed Paul Patterson as one of the de-powered mutants. There were a few problems. One, some of the mutants on the de-powered list have been proven to still have their abilities and it appears that the list included numerous errors in information. I decided to include mention of him being de-powered because Paul Patterson had not shown up since Marvel Team-Up III#6 and more than likely will not make any further appearances. I see no reason to believe that he had not been de-powered by the events of M-Day. The second problem with the article was that it was not published by Marvel itself, so if Paul Patterson does indeed show back up in the Marvel Universe with mutant powers, I will update this profile with the correct and most up-to-date information.
I wouldn't count information from the Wizard article, but I believe Patterson was amongst those whose powers were shown to make up the Collective in New Avengers#18.
Paul Patterson is listed under the codename Golden Child.
images: (not counting ads)
Marvel Team-Up III#1, p10, pan1 (Paul Patterson, fullbody)
Marvel Team-Up III#1-6 (January, 2005-May, 2005) - Robert Kirkman (writer), Scott Kolins (artist), Studio F (color art)
Wizard: The Comics Magazine#172 (February, 2006) - "Ex-Mutants" article - Kiel Phegley (writer)
New Avengers#16 (April, 2006) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Steve McNiven (pencils), Dexter Vines (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
New Avengers#17-18 (May-June, 2006) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Mike Deodato Jr. (pencils), Joe Pimentel (inks), Tom Brevoort (editor)
New Avengers#19 (July, 2006) - Brian Michael Bendis (writer), Mike Deodato Jr. (artist), Tom Brevoort (editor)
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