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Development of the original timeline [ edit | edit source ]
The original campaign setting of Greyhawk was a home campaign world invented by Gary Gygax in 1972 while playtesting the game that would become Dungeons & Dragons. Ώ] In the beginning, the entire "world" consisted of a single dungeon underneath an abandoned castle. This world eventually grew to encompass a nearby city and then some neighboring states, but since Gygax, and eventually his co-DM Rob Kuntz were making up the story as they went, there was no need for an elaborate historical background. ΐ] Although Gygax referred to Greyhawk in many of his columns, magazine articles and D&D adventures, the overall world remained his personal home campaign for several years.
In 1979, Gygax made the decision to publish the world of Greyhawk, but in order to do so, he made substantial changes to his home campaign world. Rather than using his own map, which was simply a map of the United States overwritten with his cities, towns and regions, he sketched out a new world called Oerth, Α] then concentrated on one corner of one continent, a place called the Flanaess. In order to quickly explain the current state of the world, and the motivations of various states and important characters, Gygax delineated twenty-one historical events that bracketed a thousand years of "pre-history" leading up to the "present" time of 576 CY (Common Year Reckoning). Gygax resisted the urge to fully outline a detailed timeline in order to give players as much leeway as possible when designing their own home campaigns: "The history is given briefly, and most states are only outlined generally so as to allow as much personal input as possible from DMs who decide to acquire and use it." Β]
For the next few years, Gygax was the arbiter of all events that occurred in Greyhawk until he was ousted from TSR in 1985. TSR took over creation of new events for his world, and a re-visioning of the campaign in 1992 resulted in an extension of the end of the timeline from 576 CY to 585 CY. Γ] In 1996, Wizards of the Coast bought TSR, and several years later, again reset the campaign, resulting in a further extension of the timeline to 591 CY. Δ] Ε] From 1985 to 2003, newly published material added more "backstory" to the Greyhawk history, subsequently adding many items to Gygax's original timeline.
Life of the Buddha
Siddhārtha Gautama was the historical founder of Buddhism. The early sources state he was born in the small Shakya (Pali: Sakka) Republic, which was part of the Kosala realm of ancient India, now in modern-day Nepal. He is thus also known as the Shakyamuni (literally: “The sage of the Shakya clan”). The republic was ruled by a council of household heads, and Gautama was born to one of these elites so that he described himself as a Kshatriya when talking to Brahmins. The Early Buddhist Texts contain no continuous life of the Buddha, only later after 200 BCE were various “biographies” with much mythological embellishment written. All texts agree however that Gautama renounced the householder life and lived as a sramana ascetic for some time studying under various teachers, before attaining nirvana (extinguishment) and bodhi (awakening) through meditation.
Mallas defending the city of Kusinagara, as depicted at Sanchi. The leader of the Mallas, under siege, by the seven kings, during the War of the Relics, which were objects associated with the Buddha. The Mallas were an ancient Indian republic (Gaṇa sangha) that constituted one of the solasa (sixteen) Mahajanapadas (great realms) of ancient India as mentioned in the Anguttara Nikaya.
For the remaining 45 years of his life, he traveled the Gangetic Plain of central India (the region of the Ganges/Ganga river and its tributaries), teaching his doctrine to a diverse range of people from different castes and initiating monks into his order. The Buddha sent his disciples to spread the teaching across India. He also initiated an order of nuns. He urged his disciples to teach in the local language or dialects. He spent a lot of his time near the cities of Sāvatthī, Rājagaha and Vesālī (Skt. Śrāvastī, Rājagrha, Vāiśalī). By the time of his death at 80, he had thousands of followers.
The years following the death of the Buddha saw the emergence of many movements during the next 400 years: first the schools of Nikaya Buddhism, of which only Theravada remains today, and then the formation of Mahayana and Vajrayana, pan-Buddhist sects based on the acceptance of new scriptures and the revision of older techniques.
Followers of Buddhism, called Buddhists in English, referred to themselves as Sakyan-s or Sakyabhiksu in ancient India. Buddhist scholar Donald S. Lopez asserts they also used the term Bauddha, although scholar Richard Cohen asserts that that term was used only by outsiders to describe Buddhists.
Buddhism Early Ages
After the death of the Buddha, the Buddhist sangha (monastic community) remained centered on the Ganges valley, spreading gradually from its ancient heartland. The canonical sources record various councils, where the monastic Sangha recited and organized the orally transmitted collections of the Buddha’s teachings and settled certain disciplinary problems within the community. Modern scholarship has questioned the accuracy and historicity of these traditional accounts.
The first Buddhist council is traditionally said to have been held just after Buddha’s Parinirvana, and presided over by Mahākāśyapa, one of His most senior disciples, at Rājagṛha (today’s Rajgir) with the support of king Ajāthaśatru. According to Charles Prebish, almost all scholars have questioned the historicity of this first council. Over time, these two monastic fraternities would further divide into various Early Buddhist Schools. The Sthaviras gave birth to a large number of influential schools including the Sarvāstivāda, the Pudgalavāda (also known as Vatsīputrīya), the Dharmaguptakas and the Vibhajyavāda (Theravādins being descended from these). The Mahasamghikas meanwhile also developed their own schools and doctrines early on, which can be seen in texts like the Mahavastu, associated with the Lokottaravāda, or ‘Transcendentalist’ school, who might be the same as the Ekavyāvahārikas or “One-utterancers”. This school has been seen as foreshadowing certain Mahayana ideas, especially due to their view that all of Gautama Buddha’s acts were “transcendental” or “supramundane”, even those performed before his Buddhahood.
In the third century BCE, some Buddhists began introducing new systematized teachings called Abhidharma, based on previous lists or tables (Matrka) of main doctrinal topics. Unlike the Nikayas, which were prose sutras or discourses, the Abhidharma literature consisted of systematic doctrinal exposition and often differed across the Buddhist schools who disagreed on points of doctrine. Abhidharma sought to analyze all experience into its ultimate constituents, phenomenal events or processes called dharmas.
Buddhist expansion, from Buddhist heartland in northern India (dark orange) starting 5th century BCE, to Buddhist majority realm (orange), and historical extent of Buddhism influences (yellow). Mahayana (red arrow), Theravada (green arrow), and Tantric-Vajrayana (blue arrow).
Timeline of the Anglo-Zulu War
Famous for the bloody battles of Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift, the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 saw over 15,000 British troops invade the independent nation of Zululand in present-day South Africa.
The build up to the war started in 1877 when Sir Henry Frere, a British colonial administrator, was sent to Cape Town with the task of uniting South Africa under a single British confederation. However, Frere soon realised that uniting the Boer republics, independent black states and British colonies could not be realised until the powerful Zulu kingdom on its borders had been defeated.
Knowing that London did not want a war with the Zulus (they were too preoccupied with troubles in India and Eastern Europe), Frere turned to the new British governor of Natal and the Transvaal, Sir Theophilus Shepstone, for reasons to invade. As Shepstone’s fragile territories were bordered by Zululand, he formally outlined how regular border incursions by the Zulus were effecting the stability of the region. Furthermore, Shepstone expressed concern over the increasing amount of firearms falling into Zulu hands, further fuelling the case for war.
In December 1878, an ultimatum was sent to the Zulu king Cetshwayo, requiring him, amongst other things, to disband his army. Knowing that Cetswayo would never accept these terms, Frere arranged for an army led by Lord Chelmsford (pictured to the right) to prepare for invasion…
11th December, 1878 – The British send an ultimatum to Zulu King Cetshwayo.
31st December 1878 – Sir Henry Frere grants an extension to the ultimatum.
9th January 1879 – The centre column, led by Lord Chelmsford, moves to Rorke’s Drift on the edge of Zululand.
11th January 1879 – The ultimatum expires and three British columns cross the BuffaloRiver and enter Zululand. The central column heads towards the camp of a Zulu chief called Sihayo.
12th January 1879 – The central column destroys Sihayo’s camp.
22nd January 1879 – The right column, led by Colonel Charles Pearson, engages 6,000 Zulu troops near to the Inyzane River.
22nd January 1879 – A Zulu force of 25,000 makes a surprise attack on the central column who have made camp at Isandlwana. Chelmsford’s column is defeated and he retreats out of Zulu territory.
Above: The Battle of Isandlwana
22nd / 23rd January 1879 – A group of Zulu reservists numbering around 4,000 attack the British outpost of Rorke’s Drift. With only 150 British and colonial troops to defend the outpost, the protracted engagement lasts some 11 hours before the Zulus retreat.
Above: The Battle of Rorke’s Drift
23rd January 1879 – The right column is besieged within their mission fort near Eshow. This siege would last for two months.
24th January 1879 – The left column, led by Colonel Evelyn Wood, receives news of the massacre at Isandlwana and decides to withdraw his troops back to safer ground in the Kraal. At this point, only the left column is militarily effective with Chelmsford’s central column having being destroyed, and Pearson’s right column being under siege at Eshow.
11th February 1879 – News of the defeat at Isandlwana reaches London and reinforcements are requested. Meanwhile, Chelmsford starts rebuilding his forces for a second offensive on Zululand.
7th March – The first of the reinforcements from Britain arrive at Durban. London has agreed to send seven regiments and two artillery batteries to support Chelmsford’s campaign.
12th March 1879 – A Zulu force of 500 men attack a British supply convoy at the Battle of Intombe. With only around 100 British troops protecting the convoy, this is a decisive Zulu victory.
Above: The Battle of Intombe
28th March 1879 – Chelmsford orders Colonel Wood’s left flank to attack the Zulu stronghold at Hlobane, in an attempt to distract Cetshwayo from the newly reinforced central column which is marching to relieve the besieged right column at Eshow. However, as the battle begins it soon becomes obvious that the main Zulu army of 20,000 are fast approaching over the hills and Wood signals the retreat.
Above: The retreating British cavalry at Hlobane
29th March 1879 – Chelmsford leads out the central column to relieve Eshowe.
29th March 1879 – Following the retreat at Hlobane, Colonel Wood sets up a defensive camp at Kambula with his remaining force of 2,000 men. Starting at 1pm, the battle sees over 20,000 Zulus repelled and by 6pm the battle is over with the loss of only 18 British soldiers. The Battle of Kambula is seen as the turning point into the Anglo-Zulu War.
Above: The Battle of Kambula
2nd April 1879 – Chelmsford’s force, marching to relieve Eshow, are attacked at Gingindlovu. Zulu losses are heavy, estimated at over 1,000, whilst the British column suffers only two deaths.
3rd April 1879 – The siege at Eshow ends when Chelmsford’s forces arrive.
5th April 1879 – The central and right columns evacuate Eshowe.
4th June 1879 – Aware that Chelmsford is preparing a second invasion of Zululand, Cetshwayo sends envoys to discuss peace.
Above: Zulu King Cetshwayo in 1878
16 June 1879 – Lord Chelmsford is made aware that he is to be replaced by Sir Garnet Wolseley within weeks.
June 1879 – Chelmsford quickly reorganises his forces, swelled by reinforcements from Britain, and advances again into Zululand.
28th June 1879 – Sir Garnet Wolseley arrives in Durban.
31st June 1879 – With the invading British army in sight, Cetshwayo desperately tries to strike a last minute peace deal. Chelmsford, concerned about the arrival of Wolseley and wanting to redeem himself after the catastrophe at Isandlwana, refuses any such compromise.
4th June 1879 – The main Zulu force of around 15,000 men attack Lord Chelmsford’s army at the Battle of Ulundi. The Zulus are destroyed and this effectively marks the end of the Anglo-Zulu War.
Above: The burning of Ulundi
8th July 1879 – Lord Chelmsford resigns.
15th July 1879 – Sir Garnet Wolesley takes over from Lord Chelmsford.
28th August 1879 – Cetshwayo is captured and is sent into exile, first to Cape Town and then to London.
- descends upon Fódlan from afar, adapting a humanlike form.
- Sothis's descendants, the Children of the Goddess, are born from Sothis's blood.
- Sothis and the Children of the Goddess share their knowledge and powers with humanity, and human civilization flourishes.
- As humans grew stronger, they eventually clash with Sothis and the Children of the Goddess. Humanity is almost wiped out in the ensuing battle, with some of survivors driven underground to Shambhala their descendants eventually became known as Those Who Slither in the Dark.
- Sothis creates new life to repopulate the now mostly vacant Fódlan. Sothis retires to the Holy Tomb to recover, and the Children of the Goddess base themselves in Zanado.
- Sothis is killed by Nemesis, and her remains are taken by Those Who Slither in the Dark. Her bones are used to create the Sword of the Creator, her heart is used to create its Crest Stone, and her blood is taken by Nemesis, who obtains the Crest of Flames as a result.
- Nemesis launches an attack on Zanado, killing almost all its citizens. As with Sothis, their remains are taken by Those Who Slither in the Dark to create weapons and Crest Stones, and their blood taken by the warriors who would become known as the Ten Elites.
- Saint Seiros first appeared in the land of Enbarr. Her miracles returned light to the land and inspired those purest of heart to establish the Church of Seiros.
- 1st of the Great Tree Moon - The Adrestian Empire is founded. Its name was gifted by an oracle, and its future blessed by the Goddess. The city of Enbarr was chosen as its capital due to the presence of Saint Seiros.
- The War of Heroes begins. Wilhelm Paul Hresvelg, the first Adrestian emperor, raises an army to unify Fódlan under his rule.
- The Battle of Gronder occurs. Allies of Nemesis, the King of Liberation, clash with the Imperial army at Gronder Field. The Adrestian Empire is victorious.
- The Battle of Tailtean occurs. As the Imperial army and the forces of the King of Liberation clash at the Tailtean Plains, Seiros kills Nemesis.
- The War of Heroes concludes. Lycaon I, successor to Great Emperor Wilhelm I, succumbs to sudden illness. The Empire, by now in control of most of Fódlan, takes the opportunity to put an end to the seemingly endless fighting.
- (Approximate date) Prime Minister Derick von Aegir challenges the emperor of the Adrestian Empire to a duel, with control of the Imperial throne at stake. The emperor defeats Derick, who then proposes to her.
- 25th of the Ethereal Moon - Garreg Mach Monastery is completed in the Oghma Mountains of central Fódlan.
- The First Mach War occurs. An army from Dagda arrives from across the sea and invades Mach. The Adrestian Empire drives off the Dagdans, but Mach is heavily damaged.
- The Invasion of Brigid occurs. The Adrestian Empire invades the Brigid archipelago, which was allied with Dagda. The people of Brigid refuse to surrender, and the land is forcibly subjugated.
- The Invasion of Dagda occurs. Using Brigid as a foothold, the Adrestian Empire launches a large-scale invasion of Dagda, but the attack ultimately fails.
- The War of the Eagle and Lion begins. Loog, assisted by his allies Kyphon and Pan, raises an army to demand independence from the Empire, pulling the region of Faerghus into a rebellion.
- The War of the Eagle and Lion concludes. Loog is victorious over the Empire. The Church of Seiros mediates between Faerghus and the Empire, resulting in the founding of the Holy Kingdom of Faerghus and Loog being crowned as its first king.
- The Leicester Rebellion occurs. Imperial forces fail to suppress rebellion in the region of Leicester. The Kingdom takes the opportunity to occupy and annex Leicester to expand its political power.
- King Klaus I dies. His sons, the three princes, divide the Holy Kingdom of Faerghus into three territories and rule them as archdukes.
- The Crescent Moon War begins. The archduke ruling the Leicester region of the Kingdom succumbs to illness, and the nobles of Leicester reject his heir and attempt to form an alliance instead.
- The Crescent Moon War ends. The Leicester Alliance is founded after the defeat of the loyalist nobles. The Duke of Riegan, a member of the cadet branch of the Blaiddyd royal family, becomes the Alliance's leader.
- The Almyrian Invasion occurs. Almyra, a powerful eastern nation, crosses Fódlan's Throat and invades the Leicester Alliance. The invaders are narrowly defeated with the help of an army from the Adrestian Empire.
- The Officers Academy is established at Garreg Mach Monastery in response to the incursions into Fódlan from Almyra with the aim of guaranteeing the continent's leadership was prepared to prevent the border from being taken.
- The Southern Church, based in Enbarr, leads a massive insurrection throughout the Adrestian Empire which is put down. The Emperor exiles the bishop who led the uprising and replaces the Church with the Ministry of Religion under House Varley.
- The Adrestian Empire, Holy Kingdom of Faerghus, and Leicester Alliance pool their resources to construct Fódlan's Locket, a fortress intended to fend off further invasions from Almyra.
- 26th of the Guardian Moon - Gilbert is born.
- 8th of the Pegasus Moon - Hanneman is born.
- 1st of the Ethereal Moon - Alois is born.
- Sitri is born.
- begins working as a librarian at the Garreg Mach Monastery
- is discovered by Jeralt, captain of the Knights of Seiros, and becomes his squire.
- 15th of the Horsebow Moon - Catherine is born.
- 9th of the Blue Sea Moon - Balthus is born.
- 9th of the Garland Moon - Anna is born.
- 27th of the Lone Moon - Shamir is born.
- 27th of the Harpstring Moon - Mercedes is born. ' mother remarries to Baron Bartels after the death of Mercedes' father, Baron Martritz.
- joins the Mittelfrank Opera Company in Enbarr.
- 4th of the Lone Moon - Emile, the younger half-brother of Mercedes, is born.
- 15th of Guardian Moon - Hapi is born. is born, and Sitri dies from childbirth. vanishes after a fire at Garreg Mach Monastery seemingly claims the life of his child, Byleth. is knighted. becomes an authority on Crestology within the Adrestian Empire.
- 17th of the Great Tree Moon - Hubert is born.
- 5th of the Garland Moon - Sylvain is born.
- 12th of the Verdant Rain Moon - Yuri is born.
- 21st of the Verdant Rain Moon - Leonie is born.
- (Approximate year) Tiana leaves Fódlan and travels to Almyra.
- 13th of the Garland Moon - Lorenz is born.
- 31st of the Verdant Rain Moon - Dedue is born.
- 29th of the Horsebow Moon - Dorothea is born.
- 3rd of the Pegasus Moon - Hilda is born.
- 20th of the Lone Moon - Constance is born. rises to prominence as the "Divine Songstress" of the Mittelfrank Opera Company.
- 30th of the Great Tree Moon - Ferdinand is born.
- 18th of the Harpstring Moon - Raphael is born.
- 22nd of the Garland Moon - Edelgard is born.
- 24th of the Blue Sea Moon - Claude is born.
- 23rd of the Red Wolf Moon - Marianne is born.
- 12th of the Ethereal Moon - Bernadetta is born.
- 20th of the Ethereal Moon - Dimitri is born.
- 4th of the Guardian Moon - Ingrid is born.
- 20th of the Pegasus Moon - Felix is born.
- 14th of the Lone Moon - Ignatz is born.
- Ingrid becomes engaged to Glenn, the son of Duke Fraldrius is summoned to Garreg Mach Monastery to serve as Archbishop Rhea's assistant.
- 9th of the Harpstring Moon - Annette is born.
- 1st of the Blue Sea Moon - Caspar is born.
- 17th of the Wyvern Moon - Ashe is born.
- 7th of the Red Wolf Moon - Linhardt is born.
- 7th of the Horsebow Moon - Petra is born. 's sister dies, and he renounces his Imperial peerage.
- 28th of the Pegasus Moon - Lysithea is born.
- 25th of the Wyvern Moon - Cyril is born. leaves the Adrestian Empire and becomes a professor at the Officers Academy.
- (Approximate date) A plague sweeps through the Holy Kingdom of Faerghus and claims the life of the queen consort. The mage and reputed holy woman Cornelia cures the plague, and the royal family employs her out of gratitude.
- With Rhea's approval, Aelfric create the Ashen Wolves House.
- becomes Edelgard's vassal.
- House Hrym revolts against the Adrestian Empire. The Ordelia family, which supported the rebellion, loses much of its standing, and Lysithea is caught up in the Empire's interventions. and her mother leave House Bartels and live in a church in eastern Faerghus.
- 's father becomes the next Count Bergliez after Caspar's grandfather retires.
- Upon leaving the village of Timotheos, Hapi is abducted and subjected to magical experimentation.
- (Approximate date) The Holy Kingdom of Faerghus embarks on a military campaign in Sreng personally led by King Lambert. Rodrigue serves as the king's right hand in this conflict and earns the moniker "Shield of Faerghus".
- and Linhardt meet and become friends.
- loses his parents to battles between Almyra and Fódlan and becomes an orphan.
- The Insurrection of the Seven occurs in the Adrestian Empire. Duke Aegir, with the backing of a group of nobles, strips Emperor Ionius IX of much of his power. Edelgard and her mother Patricia are taken by Lord Volkhard von Arundel, Patricia's brother, to the Faerghus. becomes a songstress with the Mittelfrank Opera Company in Enbarr. graduates from the Officers Academy at Garreg Mach.
- enrolls at, and graduates from, the Officers Academy at Garreg Mach. left the monastery and returning to the lands of Ordelia
- is discovered and adopted by Lonato, Lord of Gaspard. relinquishes his position as the heir of House Albrecht to his younger brother.
- and Lord Volkhard return to the Adrestian Empire. Patricia, by now married to King Lambert of Faerghus, stays in Fhirdiad. rises to prominence as the "Mystical Songstress" of the Mittelfrank Opera Company. meets Jeralt and resolves to become a mercenary. leaves the Mittelfrank Opera Company and becomes a professor at the Officers Academy. is discovered and adopted by Count Rowe.
- The Dagda and Brigid War occurs. A united force from Dagda and Brigid invades the Imperial territories of Nuvelle and Ochs. The invaders cause significant damage, but are eventually routed and counter-invaded. Petra's father, the son of the reigning king of Brigid, perishes in battle, and Brigid is made an Imperial vassal state. The mercenary company of Shamir is mostly wiped out, her partner being among the fatalities. Afterwhich she travels to Fódlan to continue her work. , the eldest daughter of Count Nuvelle, loses her family, title and lands in the Dagda and Brigid War.
- Petra goes to the Empire as a symbol of Brigid's vassalage.
- Shamir joins the Knights of Seiros.
- Catherine joins the Knights of Seiros.
- The Tragedy of Duscur occurs. Several members of the aristocracy of the Holy Kingdom of Faerghus are assassinated, including King Lambert and Glenn, first son of Rodrigue and elder brother of Felix. Dimitri is the sole survivor of the attack. The people of the Duscur region are blamed and heavily persecuted by the Kingdom in retaliation.
- Grand Duke Rufus of Itha assumes regency over the Holy Kingdom of Faerghus in the stead of Crown Prince Dimitri. , who lost his family during the subjugation of Duscur, is saved through Dimitri's intervention. Dedue later swears fealty to him and becomes his vassal. , son of Lonato and adoptive brother to Ashe, is caught by Catherine and executed by the Knights of Seiros for his alleged role in the Tragedy of Duscur. is adopted by the Margrave of Edmund. relocates to Fhirdiad, where she enrolls at the school of sorcery.
- After being freed, Hapi finds refuge in a church in Faerghus.
- 's father, Gustave Dominic, vanishes. Annette is taken in by her uncle, the new Baron Dominic. 's parents are attacked and killed by monsters. is disinherited from House Gautier. is captured while serving in the army and becomes a servant of House Goneril. graduates from the school of sorcery and enrolls at the Officers Academy at Garreg Mach. joins the Knights of Seiros is adopted into house Hyrm, becoming it's heir and is now being known as Jeritza.
- A rebellion occurs in the west of the Holy Kingdom of Faerghus. Dimitri distinguishes himself as a commander in the suppression effort, while Felix participates as a squire. enrolls in the Royal School of Sorcery in Fhirdiad. enrolls in the Royal School of Sorcery in Fhirdiad, but later leaves before graduating due to political changes in the Kingdom. is noticed by Archbishop Rhea and begins working at the monastery. enrolls at the Officers Academy at Garreg Mach, but is expelled due to a scandal and becomes a resident of Abyss. becomes a professor in the Officers Academy
- is announced as a legitimate heir to House Riegan. sells his estate, closes his merchant business, and resolves to become a knight. begins living at Garreg Mach Monastery. , a student of the Black Eagle house, goes missing shortly before she was to graduate. No evidence of foul play is found. , a respected librarian of the Church of Seiros for forty years, returns to the Church after years of retirement to assume his former duties.
- To evade bounty hunters, Balthus becomes a resident of Abyss. is discovered by the Knights of Seiros and is imprisoned in Abyss.
- - The events of Fire Emblem: Three Houses begin.
- and his brigands are sent by the Flame Emperor to attack Edelgard, Dimitri, and Claude while they are on a camping trip near Remire Village. Byleth and Jeralt intervene, and the bandits are driven away. Byleth manifests the a mysterious Crest. At Garreg Mach Monastery, Byleth becomes a professor of the Officers Academy at Archbishop Rhea's request and chooses between the Black Eagles, Blue Lions, and Golden Deer to teach, while Jeralt rejoins the Knights of Seiros. - A mock battle between the three houses is hosted, intended to gauge the current progress of the students and Byleth's ability to teach. - Byleth and their chosen house are sent to subdue Kostas and his brigands, who are residing in Zanado, the Red Canyon. - Under the influence of the Western Church, Lord Lonato instigates a revolt against the Church of Seiros. Catherine and Byleth's class are sent to deal with the aftermath, but a battle breaks out and Lonato meets his fate. A note is later found on him that plans an assassination of Archbishop Rhea during the Goddess's Rite of Rebirth. - Byleth and their class believe that the note was supposed to mislead everyone and the enemy has an ulterior motive. During the month, the class gathers intel and come to the conclusion that the enemy plans to pillage the Holy Mausoleum, as the tomb is open during the Goddess's Rite of Rebirth.
- Intruders from the Western Church invade the Holy Mausoleum and open Seiros's casket, revealing only the Sword of the Creator resting inside it. Byleth recovers the sword and is able to unlock the sword's power. Hanneman discovers that Byleth's mysterious Crest is actually the Crest of Flames and is authorized by the Church to hold on to it. steals the Lance of Ruin from House Gautier.
- Flayn is kidnapped by the Death Knight during the Horsebow Moon. She is rescued, along with the missing student Monica.
- The behavior of the people of Remire Village turns unusual and violent. While the chaos is quelled, Tomas reveals his true nature as an impostor named Solon.
- Monica assassinates Jeralt.
- Byleth's class confronts Monica, who reveals her true identity as Kronya. Kronya is sacrificed by Solon in an attempt to banish Byleth to the darkness of oblivion. Byleth escapes after wholly merging with Sothis and becoming the Enlightened One. ascends to the throne of the Adrestian Empire. declares war against the Church of Seiros. is deposed and his lands relinquished to the Empire. succeeds his father as Count Vestra and becomes Minister of the Imperial Household. goes missing during the Battle of Garreg Mach.
- Archbishop Rhea either flees to the Holy Kingdom of Faerghus (Crimson Flower) or is captured by Imperial forces and taken to Enbarr (other routes).
- War consumes Fódlan. Members of the Black Eagles, Blue Lions, and Golden Deer become generals or key allies in the armies of their respective countries.
- (Black Eagles route) Edelgard leads the Imperial army in the conquest and annexation of Garreg Mach Monastery. Rhea and the Church of Seiros retreat to Fhirdiad, and the Empire and Kingdom go to war, while the Alliance feigns infighting to appear neutral.
- (Golden Deer route) Claude maneuvers the Alliance to ensure it does not become embroiled in the conflict between the Empire and the Kingdom.
- (Church of Seiros route) Following Rhea's disappearance at the start of the war, the members of the Church spread across the continent in search of her while also working to maintain the faith of the people.
- (Black Eagles route) Edelgard forms the Black Eagle Strike Force at Garreg Mach Monastery after the return of Byleth.
- (Golden Deer route) The Leicester Alliance recaptures Garreg Mach Monastery.
- (Church of Seiros route) Garreg Mach Monastery is reclaimed by the Church of Seiros. The Resistance Army is assembled from members of the Church and the Black Eagles students betrayed by Edelgard. Byleth is made the leader of the army.
Cindered Shadows [ edit | edit source ]
- Sometime around Chapter 5 - Byleth, the three house leaders, and 3 otherhousemembers enter Abyss while chasing down a suspected thief, meeting with the Ashen Wolves. The Ashen Wolves initially think Byleth and their companions are intruders in Abyss and, after besting them in combat, agree to join with them.
- After joining Byleth's team, the Ashen Wolfs sense a group of Mercenaries attempting to steal treasure in Abyss. To prevent them from stealing the treasure, Byleth, their companions, and the Ashen Wolves lure them into an arena where they are cornered, thus protecting all of the treasure.
- The Ashen Wolves, after hearing a legend told by Aelfric about a chalice that can bring one back to life through the Rite of Rising, made plans for them and Byleth's team to find the chalice. After bypassing the church's security features and traps, Byleth's group obtains the chalice. Being chased, Byleth and their group return to Abyss in order to prevent it from being pillaged.
- Following the Chalice’s recovery, Aelfric is kidnapped and a note is found to tell Byleth and their team to not let the Knights of Seiros get involved in the ordeal. The Ashen Wolves then present the Chalice to Rhea who decided that, despite concerns from church authorities about the Chalice’s dangers, to allow the Ashen Wolves to keep the chalice. Byleth and the Ashen Wolves bring it along with them in their mission to rescue Aelfric.
- Following Aelfric's rescue, Yuri suddenly kidnaps the fellow Ashen Wolves on the orders of Aelfric in an effort to recreate the Rite of Rising in an effort to bring Sitri back to life. However, Yuri had outplayed Aelfric, having already alerted the Knights of Seiros, and during the ritual, Byleth and their group arrives to stop the ceremony and save the Ashen Wolves from impending death.
- In one last effort to complete the ritual, the Chalice of Beginnings absorbs Aelfric and Sitri's body into a monster, which Rhea notes was the same result as the initial attempt of the Rite of Rising. On her orders, Byleth, their companions, and the Ashen Wolves slay the Umbral Beast. Following his defeat, Rhea explains Sitri's origins to Byleth, and officially disbands the Ashen Wolves. Following this, Yuri, Balthus, Contance, and Hapi leave the Monastery to pursue their own dreams.
Hawaii History Timeline
The first Polynesians arrive by outrigger canoe 300-900AD. The first island inhabitants are the Menehune, who come over 2,000 miles from the Marquesas Islands north of Tahiti. In 1100 more Polynesian migration to the Hawaiian Islands from the Society Islands
17th Century Hawaii History Timeline
1627 - Spanish sailors visit Hawaii, describe volcanic eruption in ship's log
18th Century Hawaii History Timeline
1778 - Englishman James Cook of the British navy discovered Hawaii.
1780's - Other European and US trading ships began to arrive on their way to China. Disease brought from other parts of the world killed many of the Hawaiians.
1794 - Hawaii is placed under the protectorate of Great Britian by Vancouver
1795 - King Kamehameha I unifies Hawaiias.
19th Century Hawaii History Timeline
- All of Hawaii was under Kamehameha control.
- First theatrical performance staged in Hawaii
1815 - Russian soldiers fail attempt to build a fort in Hawaii
1816 - Volcano House opens for tourists on the island of Hawaii, $1 per person for lodging
1819 - Kamehameha I dies, and his son Liholiho became Kamehameha II. He promptly abolished the local religion.
1820 - Protestant missionaries teach Christianity
1821 - Protestant missionaries arrived the following year and converted many Hawaiians to Christianity.
1826 - James Honnewell establishes C. Brewer & Co. Ltd. trade and service organization
1831 - Catholic missionaries that arrived during the late 1820s were forced to leave or be imprisoned in 1831.
1834 - Honolulu Police Department is founded by King Kamehameha III
1835 - The first sugar plantation is established on Kauai Island
1836 - Organization of the Royal Hawaiian Band
1838 - Ground is broken for the building of the Kawaiahao Church
1839 - Roman Catholics receive religious freedom
1840 - Hawaii adopted its first constitution .
- First House of Representatives is called to order
- First class begins at Punahou, the new private school
1843 - Lord George Paulet seizes Hawaii in the name of England
1846 - Construction of Washington Place (now governor's residence) is completed
1848 - A law passed that year that divided the land between the king and his chiefs. Most of these men gave their land to the government, which in turn sold land to the Hawaiian people.
1849 - French admiral Legoarant de Tromelin fails in attempted invasion
1852 - First steam-propelled ship is used in interisland service
1853 - Smallpox epidemic takes the lives of over 5,000 Hawaiians
1858 - C. R. Bishop and W. A. Aldrich begin the kingdom's largest financial institution
1859 - Honolulu Gas Company is established
1860 - The Queen's Hospital's first structure's cornerstone is laid in place
1863 - Niihau island purchased by Elizabeth Sinclair, offered by King Kamehameha IV, $10,000
1865 - First immigrant plantation workers depart from Yokohama, Japan for Hawaii
1866 - Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) sails into Honolulu Harbor
1874 - Supreme Court of Hawaii moves into Ali`iolani (where it remains yet today)
1875 - First official regatta held on King Kalakaua's birthday
1877 - King Kalakaua dedicates Kapiolani Park as a focal point of outdoor recreation
1878 - First telephone is in operation, two years after Alexander Graham Bell's patent
1879 - First locomotive-train pulled its first load of sugarcane on Maui
1882 - The king and queen move into Iolani Palace
1883 - Kamehameha Statue is unveiled
1885 - First polo match is played in Hawaii at Kohala on the Big Island
- Electricity arrives as five arc lamps are strung around Iolani Palace
- Great Chinatown Fire losses exceeded $1,455,000
- During the rule of King Kalakaua, many Hawaiian customs that had been discouraged by earlier rulers became popular again. He became known as the Merry Monarch. To enhance trade with the United States, Kalakaua allowed them exclusive use of Pearl Harbor as a naval base.
- Kamehameha Schools are founded in memory of Puahi by husband Charles Reed Bishop
- Father Damien of Molokai's Kalaupapa leprosy settlement dies
- Queen Liliuokalani wrote her famous song, "Aloha Oe"
- Bishop Museum's original structure is completed
- Robert Louis Stevenson, famous author, arrives in Hawaii
1890's - Several US and European settlers had begun planting pineapples. Sugarcane planting also became an important industry. Thousands of workers were needed for these plantations many came from China, Japan and the Philippines.
1891 - Hawaii's only ruling queen came to power.
1893 - A revolution brought forth the Republic of Hawaii and the beginning of Sanford B. Dole's "Republic".
1894 - The Republic of Hawaii was established
1896 - Moana Hotel ("Grand Old Lady" of Waikiki/now the Sheraton Moana Surfrider) is planned
1898 - Hawaii's state flag is replaced by the United States' "Stars and Stripes"
20th Century Hawaii History Timeline
- The Hawaiian Pineapple Company, now Dole, is established
- James "Jim" Drummond Dole's first plants pineapple in Wahiawa's countryside
- 1901 - Honolulu Rapid Transit's inaugural run of electric streetcars
1903 - Joint Tourism Committee is created to promote the Territory to the world (now the HVCB)
1905 - Only 80 automobiles are registered on the island of Oahu
1910 - First airplane flight in Hawaii
1912 - Duke Kahanamoku participates at the Olympics in Stockholm
1916 - The brothel "Iwilei Stockade" is shut down
1917 - Charlie Chaplin visits Hawaii and speaks at the Honolulu Ad Club's luncheon
1920 - Prince Edward, Prince of Wales, visits the Islands
1922 - Honolulu Musum of Art is chartered
1923 - Hawaiian Dredging Co. begins dredging of the Ala Wai Canal
1924 - Work begins on the structural foundation of Aloha Tower
- Group of women found the organization "Outdoor Circle" and end billboard advertising
- Inaugural Lei Day
- The Royal Hawaiian Hotel opens for business
1929 - First interisland flight by Stanley C. Kennendy in an amphibious plane
1934 - President Roosevelt was the first US President to visit Hawaii
- First 2,270-mile trans-Pacific flight from San Francisco to Hawaii takes 21 1/2 hours
- 5-year-old Shirley Temple visits Hawaii
- "Hawaii Calls" radio program enters the hearts and living rooms of America
- When World War II began in 1939, the United States chose to stay out of the war. After the historic Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor and Oahu on Dec. 7, 1941, the United States declared war on Japan and entered World War II. Many of the damaged ships and submarines were repaired by armed forces and used in the war. The National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific was dedicated in 1949 in Honolulu thousands are buried there.
- A lone Japanese pilot crash lands on Niihau and is killed after he shoots a Hawaiian
- First land-based interisland flights
1946 - Great tsunami hits Hilo, killing over 100 people and causing $25 million damage
1956 - Financing is settled and Ala Moana Shopping Center opens
1957 - The first telephone cable from the US mainland to Hawaii operated
1959 - Hawaii became the 50 th state on Aug. 21, 1959
1962 - The jet-aircraft terminal in Honolulu was completed
1982 - Hurricane Iwa causes about $312 million in damages
1991 - Carolyn Sapp becomes the first Miss America from Hawaii
1992 - Hurricane Iniki kills four and causes $2 billion in damages
1995 - http://www.Hawaiian.com goes online with the message of Live Aloha!
21st Century Hawaii History Timeline
2000 - The U.S. Supreme Court declares that restricting voting in the Office of Hawaiian Affairs to native Hawaiians violates the 15th Amendment.
- (March) Six weeks of rain results in major damage from flooding on the islands.
- (October 15) A 6.7 magnitude earthquake on the Big Island results in property damage, landslides, tsunamis, power outages, and airport delays. The famous Mauna Kea Beach Hotel's entire south end collapses and it is shut down indefinitely. After a $150-million reconstruction, it reopens in December 2008.
2009 - The Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2009 (the Akaka Bill) is introduced in Congress for the sixth time. The bill seeks to allow Native Hawaiians to seek a special status similar to that of Native Americans, but the bill fails to pass
Timeline of Bangladeshi history
Manikganj is a district in central Bangladesh. It is a part of the Dhaka Division.
Eden Mohila College, is a women's college in Azimpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. It was established in 1873 in the Farashganj area of Dhaka. In 1878 the school was named after Ashley Eden, Lieutenant Governor of Bengal. The college moved to its present premises in 1963. It is affiliated with the University of Dhaka as of 16 February 2017.
Bikrampur was a pargana situated 19 kilometres (12 mi) south of Dhaka, the modern capital city of Bangladesh. In the present day it is known as Munshiganj District of Bangladesh. It is a historic region in Bengal and was a part of the Bhawal Estate.
Dacca or Dhaka is the capital and one of the oldest cities of Bangladesh. The history of Dhaka begins with the existence of urbanised settlements in the area that is now Dhaka dating from the 7th century CE. The city area was ruled by the Buddhist and shaivite Pala Empire before passing to the control of the Sena dynasty in the 10th century CE. After the Sena dynasty, Dhaka was successively ruled by the Turkic and Afghan governors descending from the Delhi Sultanate, followed by the Bengal Sultanate, before the arrival of the Mughals in 1608. The city became proto-industrialised and declared capital of the Mughal Bengal. After Mughals, British ruled the region for 200 years until the independence of India. In 1947, Dhaka became the capital of the East Bengal province under the Dominion of Pakistan. After the independence of Bangladesh in 1971, Dhaka became the capital of the new state.
Dhaka Government Muslim High School is a secondary school in Lakshmi Bazaar in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It is one of the oldest schools in Dhaka.
Sitakunda is an upazila, or administrative unit, in the Chittagong District of Bangladesh. It includes one urban settlement, the Sitakunda Town, and 10 unions, the lowest of administrative units in Bangladesh. It is one of the 15 upazilas, the second tier of administrative units, of the Chittagong District, which also includes 33 thanas, the urban equivalent of upazilas. The district is part of the Chittagong Division, the highest order of administrative units in Bangladesh. Sitakunda is the home of the country's first eco-park, as well as alternative energy projects, specifically wind energy and geothermal power.
Munshiganj Sadar is an upazila of Munshiganj District in the Division of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Hakim Habibur Rahman (23 March 1881 – 23 February 1947) was an Unani physician, litterateur, journalist, politician and chronicler in early 20th-century Dhaka, British India.
Comilla Victoria Government College is a college in Comilla, Bangladesh. It is one of the oldest and renowned colleges in Comilla as well as in Chittagong division. The college is located beside of Ranir Dighi on 32 acres of land including its intermediate and honors section.
1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1998th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 998th year of the 2nd millennium, the 98th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1990s decade.
1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1997th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 997th year of the 2nd millennium, the 97th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1990s decade.
1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1996th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 996th year of the 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1990s decade.
The Armenians in Bangladesh were ethnic Armenians who lived in what is now called Bangladesh. Their numbers have gradually diminished and there are now no Armenians in the country.
Martyred Intellectuals Day is observed on 14 December in Bangladesh to commemorate those intellectuals who were killed by Pakistani forces and their collaborators during the 1971 Liberation War, particularly on 25 March and 14 December 1971. The killings were undertaken with the goal of annihilating the intellectual class of what was then East Pakistan. Two days after the events of 14 December, on 16 December, Bangladesh became independent through the surrender of Pakistani forces.
The Assam Bengal Railway (ABR) was one of the pioneering railway companies in British India. Headquartered in Chittagong, it functioned from 1892 to 1942.
The divisions of Bangladesh are divided into 64 districts or zila. The capital of a district is called a district seat. The districts are further subdivided into 492 sub-districts or upazila.
The history of the textile arts of Bangladesh dates back to the 1st century AD. According to the archaeological excavations, Bangladesh was once famous for its artistic textile production throughout the world. Over the years, several types of textiles evolved in the country, mostly by the indigenous handloom manufacturers.
The national symbols of Bangladesh consist of symbols to represent Bangladeshi traditions and ideals that reflect the different aspects of the cultural life and history. Bangladesh has several official national symbols including a historic document, a flag, an emblem, an anthem, memorial towers as well as several national heroes. There are also several other symbols including the national animal, bird, flower and tree.
Adamjee Literary Award, also known as Adamjee Prize, is a literary award bestowed by the government of Pakistan. It is presented by the president. The award seeks to recognize those people who have made "meritorious contribution" to the literature of Pakistan. It was first introduced by Pakistan Writers' Guild in 1959. Muhammad Shahidullah served as the permanent chairman of the award.
The history of HSE
The first factory inspectors were appointed under the provisions of the Factories Act 1833. Initially their main duty was to prevent injury and overworking in child textile workers. The four inspectors were responsible for approximately 3,000 textile mills and had powers to enter mills and question workers. They were also able to formulate new regulations and laws to ensure the Factories Act could be suitably enforced. Despite serious opposition from contemporary politicians and employers, the factory inspectors were enthusiastic and were able to influence subsequent legislation relating to machinery guarding and accident reporting. By 1868 there were 35 inspectors and sub-inspectors, each responsible for a distinct geographical area. Changes to legislation during the period 1860 to 1871 extended the Factories Act to practically all workplaces and the inspectors took on the role of technical advisers in addition to their enforcement duties. Major technological developments, world wars and the changing nature of employment have provided a constant challenge to factory inspectors over subsequent years.
Mines Inspectorate was formed
In 1840 a Royal Commission was established to investigate working conditions in the mining industry. The Commission's findings published in 1842 made shocking reading. Accidents, brutality, lung diseases, long hours and highly dangerous and adverse working conditions were found to be the norm. Public outcry resulted and the Mines Act 1842 was brought into force.
The Act allowed for the appointment of an inspector of mines and collieries and the first inspector, Hugh Seymour Tremenheere took up his post in 1843. Tremenheere had only limited powers under the Act but undertook many prosecutions, investigated the condition of the mining community and made recommendations for training managers, reporting of fatal and serious accidents and provision of pithead baths and suitable habitation for mine workers. In 1850 inspectors were allowed to enter and inspect mine premises and Tremenheere's plans for a dedicated mining inspectorate began to be realised.
The first women factory inspector were appointed
The Factory Inspectorate was formed in 1833 and for the first 60 years it employed only male inspectors. Alexander Redgrave, the Chief Inspector of Factories was opposed to the idea of women inspectors, saying in his 1879 annual report:
"I doubt very much whether the office of factory inspector is one suitable for women. The general and multifarious duties of an inspector of factories would really be incompatible with the gentle and home-loving character of a woman. "
After several years of campaigning by the Women's Protective and Provident League, the London Women's Trades Council and others and amid growing support in Parliament, the first "Lady Inspectors", May Abraham and Mary Paterson were appointed in 1893. They were based in London and Glasgow respectively and earned an annual salary of £200. Much of their early work involved enforcing the Truck Acts, investigating women's hours of employment and enforcing health and safety in laundries.
The Quarry Inspectorate was formed
Prior to the Quarries Act 1894, the only quarries that factory inspectors were responsible for inspecting were quarries using steam power. The introduction of the Quarries Act 1894 extended the powers of the Metalliferous Mines Regulation Act 1872 to give inspectors the power to enforce provisions of notifying accidents, undertake prosecutions and make Special Rules. This lead to the establishment of the Quarry Inspectorate.
Agriculture (Safety, Health and Welfare Provisions) Act 1956
This Act introduced comprehensive health protection and safeguards for agricultural workers and for children who may come into contact with agricultural machinery, equipment or vehicles. It prohibited the lifting of excessive weights, outlined the general provisions that must be made for sanitary conveniences and washing facilities and stipulated requirements for first aid provision. The Act also laid down requirements for the notification and investigation of accidents and diseases. It was instrumental in appointing a number of inspectors with the powers to enter agricultural premises and enforce the Act.
Nuclear Installations Act 1959 which established the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate
The investigation into a major incident at the Windscale nuclear site on 8 October 1957 lead to a recommendation from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) that a body should be set up with responsibility for licensing future civil reactors in the UK. The insurance industry added pressure to the debate and in 1959 the Nuclear Installations Act was passed, setting in train the formation of the Inspectorate of Nuclear Installations within the Ministry of Power. Today's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) is responsible for the UK safety regulation of nuclear power stations, nuclear chemical plants, defence nuclear facilities, nuclear safety research, decommissioning and strategy. Since 2 April 2007 NII has also been responsible for civil nuclear operational security and safeguards matters.
Flixborough chemical plant explosion (28 fatalities)
On Saturday 1 June 1974 a massive explosion destroyed a large part of the Nypro (UK) Ltd plant at Flixborough, near Scunthorpe. Twenty eight people were killed in the incident and 36 people suffered injuries. More casualties could have been expected if the incident had occurred on a week day. Widespread damage was caused to surrounding commercial premises and residential housing. The explosion resulted from the ignition and deflagration of a huge vapour cloud which formed when cyclohexane under pressure escaped from a part of the plant used in the production of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Her Majesty's Factory Inspectorate investigated the incident (this was before the Health and Safety Executive was formed) and produced an interim report. Following on from this, a formal investigation into the circumstances surrounding the explosion was undertaken by a Court of Inquiry chaired by Roger J. Parker QC.
Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974
The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 was described as "a bold and far-reaching piece of legislation" by HSE's first Director General, John Locke. It certainly marked a departure from the framework of prescribed and detailed regulations which was in place at the time. The Act introduced a new system based on less-prescriptive and more goal-based regulations, supported by guidance and codes of practice. For the first time employers and employees were to be consulted and engaged in the process of designing a modern health and safety system. The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 also established the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) for the purpose of proposing new regulations, providing information and advice and conducting research. HSC's operating arm, the Health and Safety Executive was formed shortly after in order to enforce health and safety law, a duty shared with Local Authorities.
Health and Safety Commission established
The Health and Safety Commission (HSC) was formed when the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 received Royal Assent on 31 July 1974. HSC's constitution and responsibilities were laid out in Sections 1, 10 and 11 of the Act and, according to the first HSC annual report (1977) included: "taking appropriate steps to secure the health, safety and welfare of people at work, to protect the public generally against risks to health and safety arising out of the work situation, to give general direction to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and guidance to Local Authorities on the enforcement provisions of the Act, to assist and encourage persons with duties under the Act and to make suitable arrangements for research and the provision of information." Some of the key health and safety hazards which HSC was concerned with in its first few months included asbestos, construction, dusts, genetic manipulation, ionising radiation, lead, noise and vinyl chloride.
Health and Safety Executive was formed
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) was formed on 1 January 1975 under the leadership of its first Director, John Locke. HSE's remit was to undertake the requirements of the Health and Safety Commission and to enforce health and safety legislation in all workplaces, except those regulated by Local Authorities. A number of regulatory and scientific organisations transferred to HSE at this time, including: the Factory Inspectorate Explosives Inspectorate Employment Medical Advisory Service Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety and Health Division from the Department of Energy the Mines Inspectorate the Safety in Mines Research Establishment the British Approvals Service for Electrical Equipment in Flammable Atmospheres and the Alkali and Clean Air Inspectorate. One of the first tasks undertaken by HSE was the re-organisation of the Factory Inspectorate into a series of 21 Area Offices and 11 local offices, supported by Field Consultant Groups, comprised of specialist scientific and technical staff.
First HSC advisory committees established
The Health and Safety Commission (HSC) set up the first of a number of advisory committees during 1975. This was done with a view to drawing upon the expertise of industry and specialist organisations and in encouraging wide participation in the improvement of occupational health and safety. Advisory committees on the following topics were set up over the next couple of years: Advisory Committee on Dangerous Substances Advisory Committee on Toxic Substance Medical Advisory Committee Advisory Committee on Asbestos Advisory Committee on Major Hazards Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations Safety in Mines Research Advisory Board and the British Approvals Service for Electrical Equipment In Flammable Atmospheres (BASEEFA) Advisory Council. HSC also consulted the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and Confederation of British Industry (CBI) for suggestions for additional advisory bodies. A full list of contemporary advisory committees is available.
First HSC annual report published
The first annual report published by the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) concentrated on three strategic aims, namely: encouraging positive attitudes to health and safety in the workplace developing better information about the cause and scale of hazards and the review of section 1(2) of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974. The report also outlined the objectives of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and Health and Safety Commission (HSC), the scope of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 and policy development.
Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations 1977 (S.I. 1977/500)
These regulations established the right of a recognised trade union to appoint safety representatives from among the employees it represented. The exception to this was employees of mines, specifically coal mines as defined by section 180 of the Mines and Quarries Act 1954. The regulations conferred number of powers to safety representatives including: "to investigate potential hazards and dangerous occurrences at the workplace (whether or not they are drawn to his attention by the employees he represents) and to examine the causes of accidents at the workplace" "to make representations to the employer on general matters affecting the health, safety or welfare of the employees at the workplace" and to inspect certain documents. Under the terms of the regulations, two or more safety representatives could request their employer to establish a safety committee. The regulations also outlined the terms for pay for time off allowed to safety representatives carrying out official duties.
Golborne Colliery disaster (10 fatalities)
Ten people died and one person was seriously injured when firedamp ignited and exploded in the Plodder Seam at the Golborne Colliery in the Greater Manchester area on 18 March 1979. Firedamp accumulated following a breakdown in the ventilation system and it is thought that this was probably ignited by electrical sparking. The Health and Safety Executive's Safety in Mines Research Establishment (SMRE) investigated the incident and made recommendations for improving both ventilation systems and intrinsically safe electrical equipment in mines.
Control of Lead at Work Regulations 1980 (S.I. 1980/1248)
The Regulations stipulated that where employees are exposed to lead in the workplace, employers or those who are self-employed must assess the work in order to establish the nature and degree of the exposure to lead. Employers are also required to provide information, training and instruction to exposed workers. Other requirements under the Regulations included: ensuring control measures are in place for material, plant and processes and that these are properly maintained providing washing and changing facilities and areas for employees to eat, drink and smoke avoiding the spread of contamination cleaning air monitoring and conducting medical surveillance and biological tests. For more information about lead, see the Lead pages on the HSE Website.
Notification of Accidents and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1980 (S.I. 1980/637)
The Notification of Accidents and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1980 (NADOR) required employers and the self- employed to keep a record of any accidents or certain types of dangerous occurrences and report these to HSE. The Regulations include lists of the types of dangerous occurrences that are reportable, including those that occur in any situation and those that relate specifically to mines, quarries and railways. Today, the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulation 1995 (RIDDOR) has replaced NADOR. For more information about what is reportable under RIDDOR and what employers, employees, the self employed and gas suppliers and fitters are obliged to do under the Regulations, please visit the RIDDOR pages on the HSE Website.
Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 (S.I. 1981/917)
These Regulations which came into force on 1st July 1982 stipulated that "an employer shall provide or ensure that there are provided, such equipment and facilities as are adequate and appropriate in the circumstances for enabling first aid to be rendered to his employees if they are injured or become ill at work." Employers were also required to inform employees about the arrangements in place for providing first-aid, including the location of facilities, personnel and equipment. Self-employed people were also covered by the Regulations as there was a requirement for them to provide appropriate and adequate equipment for rendering first aid to themselves at work, if necessary.
150th anniversary of HM Factory Inspectorate
Today, HSE's factory inspectors are based in the Field Operations Directorate. For more information, see the '1990: Field Operations Directorate was formed' entry.
Information about the origins and development of the Factory Inspectorate can be accessed via the '1833: HM Factory Inspectorate was formed' entry.
HSE starts to enforce asbestos licensing industry
The Health and Safety Commission's Advisory Committee on Asbestos reached agreement on two European Union directives concerning protection of workers exposed to asbestos and the marketing and use of asbestos. This agreement, based on medical evidence and research on engineering controls resulted in the development of the Asbestos (Licensing) Regulations 1983 which came into force on 1 August 1984.
Asbestos (Licensing) Regulations 1983 (S.I. 1983/1649)
The Asbestos (Licensing) Regulations 1983 came into force on 1 August and have been amended by several pieces of legislation in the intervening years. At the time the Regulations became law, no-one could carry out work with asbestos insulation including asbestos insulation board or asbestos coating unless they held a licence granted by HSE or worked for someone who held such a licence. There were three exemptions to the requirements, namely: collecting samples or air monitoring to identify asbestos work carried out with asbestos insulation, asbestos insulating board or asbestos coating by employers or the self-employed, either by themselves or by using their own employees and in their own premises and work of short duration using these materials. For more information about present day requirements for working with asbestos, please visit the Asbestos pages on the HSE Website.
HSE starts to enforce genetic manipulation regulations
HSE assumed responsibility for enforcing the Health and Safety (Genetic Manipulation) Regulations 1978 from the Department of Education and Science in 1983. In March 1984 a new Advisory Committee on Genetic Manipulation (ACGM) was set up to support this new role. In its first year, ACGM set up working parties to investigate: the release of genetically manipulated organisms for agricultural and environmental purposes the uses of viruses in genetic manipulation, including the use of recombinants containing potentially harmful nucleic acid sequences and monitoring of workers involved in genetic manipulation work. In 2004, ACGM was replaced by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Genetic Modification (Contained Use), (SACGM(CU)). SACGM(CU) provides technical and scientific advice to the UK Competent Authority on all aspects of the human and environmental risks of the contained use of genetically modified organisms.
HSE starts to enforce domestic gas safety
HSE assumed responsibility for mains gas safety functions on 1 February 1984, taking over from the Department of Energy. This involves responsibility for the safety of gas mains in the home as well as the workplace. HSE was given the power to introduce gas safety regulations under the Gas Act 1972 and enforce safety regulations made under this Act. Now HSE and local authorities have joint enforcement responsibilities under the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998 and are responsible for preventing injury to consumers and the public from either fire and explosion or carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. More information is available on the Gas health and safety law and enforcement website.
Abbeystead pumping station (16 fatalities)
An explosion occurred at a subterranean valve house in the Lune/Wyre Water Transfer Scheme at Abbeystead in Lancashire on 23 May 1984. Sixteen people were killed and 28 injured whilst taking part in an evening visit at the site. The visit was part of a programme to demonstrate to local residents that their fears that the Transfer Scheme would cause winter flooding were unfounded. The explosion occurred while water was being pumped over the weir into the river Wyre. The valve house was severely damaged during the incident. HSE investigated and concluded that the explosion was caused by ignition of a mixture of methane and air which had built up in the wet room of Abbeystead Valve House. The source of the ignition was not identified. HSE also contacted water authorities and alerted them to the potential dangers of water transfer and comparable systems where methane could pose a serious risk.
Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard Regulations 1984 (S.I. 1984/1902)
The Regulations, known as CIMAH, require that safe operation can be demonstrated for industrial activities in which various substances as defined in Schedule I of the Regulations are involved. They also set out requirements for isolated storage of substances in Schedule 2 of the Regulations. Under the Regulations, manufacturers are required to provide written evidence that major accident hazards have been identified and the necessary steps put in place to prevent major incidents and protect workers on the site. They also are required to prepare an off-site emergency plan to complement the Local Authority emergency plan and to provide information to the Local Authority which can be used to inform people living in the locality who might be affected by a CIMAH site.
Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1985 (S.I. 1985/2023)
The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1985, commonly known as 'RIDDOR', require a 'responsible person' to notify the enforcing authority where a person dies or sustains any injuries or specific medical conditions or where a dangerous occurrence takes place in connection with a work activity. The Regulations set out the specific injuries which are reportable including fractures, amputation, decompression sickness and others. A list of the dangerous occurrences reportable under RIDDOR is provided in Schedule 1 of the Regulations, while a second schedule sets out reportable diseases under RIDDOR. Separate notification requirements for mines, quarries and railways are also explained.
Putney domestic gas explosion (8 fatalities)
Eight residents were killed in a major explosion which occurred on 10 January 1985 at a block of luxury flats in Newnham House, Manor Fields, Putney, South London. HSE worked with investigation teams from the British Gas Corporation, South Eastern Gas, Midland Research Station, the London Borough of Wandsworth and the police and fire authority to ascertain the cause of the incident. Investigations revealed the explosion was caused by gas leaking into the building from a crack in the cast iron pipe that formed the gas main. The crack had been caused by uneven loading on the pipe due to differential settlement. HSE made a number of recommendations regarding the safety of gas mains, one of the key ones being for the British Gas Corporation to review its priorities for replacing cast iron gas mains.
HSE starts to enforce transport of dangerous goods by road safety
Legislation surrounding the regulation of dangerous goods has been subject to many changes since HSE began enforcing The Dangerous Substances (Conveyance by Road in Packages) Regulations 1986 (PGR). Today HSE is one of the organisations responsible for enforcing The Carriage of Dangerous Goods and Use of Transportable Pressure Receptacles Regulations 2009 (CDG 2009). More information about HSE's role in this area can be found in the Dangerous Goods manual.
Fire at Bradford City Football Stadium - Valley Parade
Fifty six people died and approximately 256 were injured when a serious fire broke out in the main stand at Valley Parade, the home ground of Bradford City Football Club, on Saturday 11 May 1985. HSE investigated this incident, described as the worst fire disaster in the history of British football. Forensic tests concluded that the fire was probably started by a dropped match or a cigarette stubbed out in a polystyrene cup. The old wooden stands that had been in place for decades at the ground contributed to the ferocity of the fire. The disaster prompted a review of the UK's sports grounds and stadia, resulting in legislative changes.
Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (1985 No 1333)
The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 applied to any work with ionising radiation except work carried out under section 1 of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 and in certain activities as outlined in Schedule 3 of the Regulations. The Regulations set out legal duties in the following areas: dose limitation including restriction of exposure designation of controlled areas and of classified persons appointment of qualified persons training and instruction requirements dosimetry and medical surveillance control of radioactive substances including arrangements for personal protective equipment and washing and changing facilities assessment of hazards investigation of cases of overexposure and fees for medical examinations.
HSE starts to enforce pesticide safety
The Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986 (S.I. 1986/1510) conferred authority on HSE to enforce pesticide safety. The Regulations provided a detailed list of those types of pesticides which are subject to control and those which are excluded. They also outlined the approvals required before any pesticides could be sold, stored, used, supplied or advertised. In addition, the Regulations set out the general conditions for pesticides regarding sale, supply, storage, advertisement and use, including aerial application. The Regulations were superseded by the Control of Pesticides Regulations 1997 (S.I. 1997/188). More information about HSE's role in enforcing pesticides safety can be found on the HSE Website.
Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations 1987 (S.I. 1987/2115)
These regulations stipulate that an employer 'shall not carry out any work which exposes or is liable to expose any of his employees to asbestos unless either a) before commencing that work he has identified, by analysis or otherwise, the type of asbestos involved in the work or b) he has assumed that the asbestos is crocidolite or amosite and for the purposes of the Regulations has treated it accordingly'. Under the Regulations, employers must notify the enforcing authority of work with asbestos in certain circumstances. They must also provide information, instruction and training for employees who are liable to be exposed to asbestos during the course of their work. Adequate control measures must be in place and must be adequately maintained to prevent or reduce the spread of asbestos. Other requirements of the regulations include: ensuring cleanliness of plant and premises designation of areas where asbestos is present air monitoring including associated record-keeping medical surveillance and keeping health records provision of washing and changing facilities and storage and labelling of raw asbestos and asbestos waste.
Kings Cross underground station fire (31 fatalities)
The King's Cross underground station fire occurred on 18 November 1987. Thirty one people died and many more were injured. The fire started when a lighted match which was dropped by a passenger on one of the station's escalators fell through a gap between the treads and skirting boards and set fire to grease and dust that had been allowed to accumulate. The resulting fire spread rapidly, accompanied by thick black smoke. As London Underground's practice was to call the Fire Brigade only when a fire seemed to be getting out of hand, by the time the Fire Brigade arrived, the fire was widespread and out of control. There were no smoke detectors in place in the station and only a manual water spray system. The Fennell Inquiry report noted that the London Underground staff members on duty were poorly trained and "woefully inequipped to meet the emergency that arose". Following the incident, London Underground and the other organisations involved in the incident accepted 157 recommendations for safety improvements outlined in the official report.
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (S.I. 1988/1657)
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations, generally referred to as the COSHH Regulations, were introduced to protect the health of people arising from work activities. Under the Regulations, employers must carry out a risk assessment to ensure that employees are not exposed to substances which will be hazardous to their health. Where exposure to such substances cannot be prevented, employers must provide suitable protective equipment and control measures and they must ensure that such equipment is adequately maintained, examined and tested and the results of tests recorded and kept. RIDDOR stipulates a requirement for monitoring exposure in the workplace and maintaining suitable records. It also sets out requirements for health surveillance and medical surveillance. Employers are also obliged to ensure that where exposure to hazardous substance is unavoidable, workers are made aware of the associated health risks and the precautions that should be taken including any associated instruction and training requirements.
Clapham train crash (35 fatalities)
A major rail accident occurred on the morning of 12 December 1988 at Clapham junction when two commuter trains collided and were subsequently hit by a third empty train. Thirty five people died in the accident and many other passengers sustained injuries. The Inquiry into the collision concluded that the main cause was 'wiring issues' and it laid the blame on British Rail work practices. The Inquiry also made 93 recommendations for safety improvements to be made. These included a limit to the hours that signalmen should be allowed to work and a system of automatic train protection (ATP) to be installed.
Piper Alpha oil installation fire and explosion (167 fatalities)
A series of catastrophic explosions occurred on the Piper Alpha offshore platform on the evening of 6 July 1988. This lead to a major and sustained gas fire which resulted when the Tartan gas riser ruptured. The majority of the emergency systems including the fire water system failed to operate and the resulting fierce fires and dense smoke made evacuation by helicopter or lifeboats impossible. Structural collapse of the platform quickly followed, causing many of the offshore workers to jump into the sea. Of the 226 people on board the Piper Alpha platform, 165 died and two members of the 'Sandhaven's' fire rescue craft lost their lives. The Lord Cullen inquiry into the incident made a series of recommendations for the future regulation of the offshore installations and appointed the Health and Safety Executive as a single regulatory body to enforce occupational health and safety in the offshore oil and gas industry.
Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (S.I. 1989/1790)
The Noise at Work Regulations 1989 stipulate that 'Every employer shall reduce the risk of damage to the hearing of his employees from exposure to noise to the lowest level reasonably practicable'. To this end, the Regulations require that a noise assessment should be made if employees are likely to be exposed to the first action level or above or to the peak action level of noise. The assessment should be reviewed as appropriate and adequate assessment records kept.
Where employees are exposed to noise, adequate ear protection must be provided and ear protection zones set up where necessary. Any equipment provided must be carefully maintained and used and employees should be given information on the steps they can take to protect their hearing in the workplace. The Regulations also outline the particular modifications of the duties of manufacturers of articles for use at work and articles of fairground equipment in relation to the Regulations.
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 (S.I. 1989/635)
The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 had a wide remit, covering: work systems, protective equipment and work activities adverse or hazardous environments capability and strength of electrical equipment earthing and other suitable precautions electrical protection, insulation and placing of conductors connections integrity of conductors cutting off electrical supply and isolation working on dead equipment working on or in the vicinity of live conductors working space, lighting and access and competent persons. A section of the Regulations applied only to Mines, covering areas such as: introduction of electrical equipment restrictions in certain underground zones provisions associated with the presence of firedamp approval of certain equipment in safety-lamp mines cutting off electricity to circuits underground oil-filled equipment electric shock notices information and records use of battery-powered locomotives and vehicles into safety-lamp mines and storage, transfer and charging of electrical storage batteries.
The Hillsborough Stadium disaster in which 96 people were killed and 170 injured was one of Britain's worst sporting disasters. The disaster occurred on 15 April 1989 at the Hillsborough football stadium during the FA Cup semi-final match between Nottingham Forest and Liverpool. Football fans were caught up in a massive crush which occurred as a result of too many Liverpool fans being let into a full stand at the Leppings Lane end of the stadium. The resulting surge of fans gaining access to the ground caused the fans already inside the ground to be pushed against the wire safety fences and crushed. Lord Justice Taylor's official Inquiry into the disaster led to many new safety measures being introduced to sporting stadia.
HSE starts to enforce rail safety
Responsibility for railway safety passed from the Department of Transport to HSE in 1990. This took place because the Department of Transport's Railway Inspectorate was heavily criticised for their poor protection of rail passengers and for not employing modern risk assessment techniques. The transfer was also seen as beneficial because it passed the responsibility for safety to the main Government health and safety regulator and away from the transport industry's representative government department. The privatisation of British Rail during the period 1993 to 1996 saw a hundred companies taking charge of the rail industry. HSE introduced a new regulatory framework to manage the challenges to railway safety culture and risk management that took place during this period. The key components of the regulatory framework included new safety cases and permissioning regimes. From 1 April 2006 the Railway Inspectorate moved to the Office of Rail and Road (ORR). More information about HSE's role in regulating the health and safety of the railway industry can be found in 'A farewell to trains'
HSE starts to carry out nuclear safety research
Responsibility for nuclear research passed from the Department of Energy to the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) on 1 April 1990. The Nuclear Safety Research Management Unit (NSRMU) was established to manage the nuclear safety research programme on behalf of HSC. Its work was reviewed by the Advisory Committee on Safety in Nuclear Installations' (ACSNI) Subcommittee on Research. ACSNI was particularly concerned with the reductions in nuclear research among the current nuclear licensees due to commercial pressures, and consequently stressed the need for HSC to support key areas of nuclear research. ACSNI recommended that more research into the effects of nuclear plant ageing, human factors and future reactor designs would be beneficial. It also welcomed the fact that HSC's research programme was being opened up to competition and that customer-contractor arrangements were being strengthened to ensure better targeting of research priorities.
HSE starts to enforce offshore safety
HSE'S Offshore Division was established at the recommendation of Lord Cullen's Inquiry into the Piper Alpha offshore explosion in 1988. This change in responsibility brought about a shift in emphasis for the industry as prescriptive regulations which set specific requirements on duty holders were replaced by goal-setting regulations. One of the main requirements of the new regime was the introduction of a safety case system in which each installation is required to demonstrate that major hazards are adequately controlled and that a suitable management system is in place. Safety cases are submitted to HSE for approval and approval must be obtained before an offshore company is allowed to operate on the UK continental shelf. Today's challenge for the offshore industry and for HSE is to manage the integrity of an ageing infrastructure while improving health and safety for the offshore workforce.
'Six pack' regulations
Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 (S.I. 1992/3004)
These wide ranging Regulations were laid before Parliament on 8 December 1992 and came into force on 1 January 2003. The Regulations apply to the majority of workplaces and cover many workplace issues. These include: maintenance of workplaces and of equipment, devices and systems ventilation indoor workplace temperature lighting cleanliness and waste materials room dimensions and space workstations and seating conditions of floors and traffic routes falls or falling objects windows and transparent / translucent doors, gates and walls windows, skylights and ventilators safe cleaning of windows planning traffic routes doors and gates escalators and moving walkways sanitary conveniences washing facilities drinking water accommodation for clothing and facilities for changing clothing, resting and eating meals.
Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (S.I. 1992/2793)
The Regulations required employers to ensure 'so far as is reasonably practicable that employees should not be asked to carry out manual handling work where there is a risk of being injured. Where such work is necessary, employers were required to make an assessment of the risks involved, take any appropriate steps required to ensure that risks are kept to a minimum, and provide employers undertaking such work with information about the weight of each load and the heaviest side of any load which has a non-centrally positioned centre of gravity. Schedule 1 of the Regulations outlined the factors that employers should take into account when carrying out an assessment of the risks associated with manual handling tasks.
The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 (S.I. 1992/2792)
These Regulations require employers to assess all computer workstations to ensure health and safety risks are identified and effectively minimised. The Regulations stipulate that employees who use DSE in their work must be able to periodically take adequate breaks or changes of activity from using display screen equipment (DSE). Employees are also entitled to request eye and eyesight tests. Employers must also provide health and safety training and information about working with DSE to employees. The Regulations also set out requirements for display screens, keyboards, work desks or work surfaces and chairs as well as environmental factors such as providing adequate arrangements for space and lighting, along with measures for controlling noise, reflections and glare, heat, humidity and radiation. In addition, the software and tasks carried out by an operator or user of a computer must be appropriate to both the task being undertaken and the knowledge of the operator or user.
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1992 (S.I. 1992/2932)
These Regulations, commonly known as PUWER, apply to the equipment provided for use in workplaces in general, including offshore installations. They also apply to self-employed people who use equipment in a work capacity. The Regulations impose a wide range of requirements for the provision and use of work equipment, including: suitability maintenance risks information and instructions training EU conformity dangerous parts of machinery protection against specific hazards working in high or very low temperatures operating controls isolation stability lighting maintenance markings and warnings and exemptions.
Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 (S.I. 1992/2966)
The regulations stipulate that personal protective equipment (PPE) should be supplied and used in the workplace wherever there are risks to health and safety that cannot be eliminated or managed in any other way. The regulations also require that PPE is: properly assessed to ensure its suitability issued with full instructions on its safe use stored and maintained properly and used correctly by employees.
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992 (S.I. 1992/2051)
The regulations set out responsibilities for carrying out risk assessments and health surveillance in the workplace, as well as putting health and safety arrangements including assistance in place. Other responsibilities set out by the regulations include: procedures for serious and imminent danger and for danger areas co-operation and co-ordination between employers sharing work premises self-employed persons' undertakings working in hosted premises providing information for employees capabilities and training employees' duties and responsibilities towards temporary workers.
150th anniversary of the Mines Inspectorate
HM Inspectorate of Mines was formed in 1843 under the leadership of Hugh Seymour Tremenheere. The mining industry has undergone many changes in the intervening years, but its safety record has improved tremendously and today the UK continues to be the world leader in mining health and safety. For more information about the early history of HM Inspectorate of Mines please see the 1843 entry 'Mines Inspectorate was formed' in this Timeline. You can also find out about the Mines Inspectorate in the 21st century, in the HSE Website's Health and safety in mining pages.
Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 (S.I. 1994/3140)
The Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 (CDM) came into force on 31 March 1995. The first part of the Regulations dealt with the application of the Regulations and definitions. The second part outlines how the regulations apply to construction work. The roles and responsibilities of clients and agents of clients are explained in the third part. There are also separate sections for developers, appointments of principal contractor and planning supervisor and the responsibilities assigned to these roles.
Major Review of Regulation completed
In 1992, the Health and Safety Commission was charged with undertaking a review of extant health and safety legislation. The purpose of the review was to check whether existing legislation was still relevant and necessary in its current form. In addition the review aimed to reduce the administrative burdens that legislation can place on small businesses and also examine HSE's general approach to enforcement. The review found that, while there was widespread support for the framework of health and safety legislation, much of the current law was seen as 'too voluminous, complicated and fragmented'. When the finding of the report was published in 1994, it recommended the removal of 100 sets of regulations and seven pieces of primary legislation as well as the simplification of many of the 340 requirements and recommendations for associated administrative paperwork. A comprehensive programme was put into place to achieve the necessary reforms and the ongoing process to reduce the burdens on business is described in HSE's Simplification Plan.
100th anniversary of the Quarry Inspectorate
Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) becomes an agency of HSE
An experimental station to investigate explosions in coal mines was set up at Eskmeals in Cumberland in 1911 by the UK government. Over the next few years, this area of research continued to grow and after the formation of the Safety in Mines Research Board in 1921, a site at Harpur Hill was acquired in 1924 for large scale mining safety work. The Safety in Mines Research Establishment (SMRE) was formed in 1947 and this combined the work of the Buxton site with the central laboratories which had opened in Sheffield in 1928. In 1959 the Occupational Medicine Laboratory was opened in London in 1959 and in 1975 the three organisations were merged to form the Health and Safety Executive's Research and Laboratory Services Division (RLSD) .RLSD's laboratories were integrated into one laboratory, the Health and Safety Laboratory in 1995. More information is available on the HSL Website.
Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996 (S.I. 1996/1592)
The Construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996 came into force on 2nd September 1996. The Regulations set out a wide range of enforceable safety measures for the construction industry including the provision of "suitable and sufficient safe access to and egress from every place of work and to any other place provided for the use of any person while at work, which access and egress shall be without risks to health and properly maintained." Specific requirements of the Regulations included: preventing falls ensuring the stability of structures safe methods for demolition and dismantling operations protection from falling objects temperature and weather protection fire detection and fire-fighting measures provision of welfare facilities safe use of explosives provision of lighting safe systems for using cofferdams and caissons inspection by competent persons training and others.
Southall rail accident
The Southall rail accident occurred when the 10.35 high speed train from Swansea to London Paddington collided with a freight train operated by English Welsh and Scottish Railway. The incident happened at 13.15 on 19 September 1997 at Southall East Junction. Seven people died in the accident and 139 people were injured, some of these sustaining serious injuries. HSE's Railway Inspectorate investigated the incident and an official inquiry was conducted by Professor John Uff.
Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998 (S.I. 1998/2451)
The first of the general provisions of the Regulations covered qualification and supervision and states that 'No person shall carry out work in relation to a gas fitting or gas storage vessel unless he is competent to do so'. The Regulations imposed a duty on employers to ensure that people carrying out work on gas installations have been approved by HSE under regulation 3(3) of these Regulations. Requirements for materials and workmanship, protection against damage, existing gas fittings as well as general safety precautions are also outlined in the Regulations.
40th anniversary of the Nuclear Installation Inspectorate
The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) came into being in 1959, under one of the provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1959. The Act came into force as a consequence of the Fleck Inquiry into the fire at Windscale Pile 1. This incident which occurred in 1957 has been the UK's worst nuclear accident. Over the years, NII has been involved in responding to accidents such as Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, participating in major public inquiries and providing help to European regulators. Today's Nuclear Directorate (ND) sets the safety and security standards to be used on nuclear sites in the UK. ND is also involved in a Transition Programme aimed at creating a new Nuclear Statutory Corporation (NSC) that will incorporate all elements of the HSE's Nuclear Directorate (Nuclear Installations Directorate, Office for Civil Nuclear Security and UK Safeguards Office).
Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations 1999 (S.I. 1999/743)
The Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations 1999 (COMAH) set out the responsibilities of operators of plants where scheduled hazardous chemicals are used, to prevent major accidents and limit the consequences of major accidents to people and the environment. The regulations require operators to formulate a major accident prevention policy and also to notify the competent authority at the start of the construction of a plant handling scheduled chemicals and at the end, when the plant is being decommissioned or the chemicals are no longer present on site. The regulations also require retailed safety reports to be sent to the competent authority and for operators to produce emergency plans in consultation with local authorities. In addition, operators must provide information to the public with regard to local safety measures and actions to take in the event of a major accident at a COMAH site.
Ladbroke Grove train crash (31 fatalities)
Thirty-one people died and over 400 were injured when a passenger train passed a red signal and collided with a high-speed passenger train at Ladbroke Grove in West London on 5 October 1999. The Health and Safety Executive's Railway Inspectorate investigated the incident and Lord Cullen chaired a Public Inquiry into the causes of the crash as well as wider issues relating to regulatory matters and safety management. In 2004 HSE won a prosecution against Thames Trains for breaches of Section 2 and 3 of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act relating to driver training. Following this, in 2005 the Crown Prosecution Service successfully prosecuted Network Rail Infrastructure (formerly Railtrack Plc) under Section 3 of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act.
Bill Callaghan appointed as Chair of the Health and Safety Commission
Bill Callaghan took up the post of Chair of the Health and Safety Commission in October 1999. Formerly the Chief Economist and Head of the Economic and Social Affairs Department at the Trades Union Congress (TUC), Bill Callaghan also served on the Low Pay Commission from 1997 – 2000. During his time as HSC Chair, Bill Callaghan played a major role in the 'Revitalising health and safety' campaign which set targets and priorities for improving health and safety performance. He also lead on the development of HSC's strategy to 2010 and beyond and spearheaded the sensible risk campaign which was aimed at overturning health and safety myths. Bill Callaghan was knighted in June 2007 in recognition of his outstanding contribution to health and safety management at work. He also received a Distinguished Service Award from the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (ROSPA) in October of that year.
'Revitalising health and safety strategy' launched
The Revitalising Health and Safety Strategy Statement was published in June 2000 to mark the start of the ten year campaign of the same name. The Revitalising health and safety strategy was launched at a time when the same proportion of people had been injured at work since the early 1990s. The aim of the Revitalising health and safety strategy was to help people at work to protect themselves and their business, to improve the quality of life in the workplace and to help employers and employees to make work safer and healthier. Measurable targets were set and reviewed at regular intervals.
'Securing health together occupational health strategy for Great Britain' launched
The 'Securing health together occupational health strategy for Great Britain' was launched in 2000 as a ten year strategy for reducing high levels of occupational ill-health and the resulting costs to families, employers and society. The Strategy was based on several main targets: to reduce ill health in workers and the public that had been caused or affected by work to help people who had been ill to return to work, whether or not their work had caused their absence to improve work opportunities for people not in work, due to illness or disability to use the work environment to help people improve or maintain their health. A number of measurable targets were at the heart of the Strategy and the contemporary estimated gross benefits of reaching the targets were estimated to be 6.6 to 21.8 billion pounds sterling by 2010.
HSC's 'Strategy for workplace health and safety to 2010 and beyond' launched
A Strategy was launched in February 2004 to set a new direction for the role of the Health and Safety Commission, Health and Safety Executive and Local Authorities. The Strategy aimed to improve poor safety performances, engender a greater participation of workers in workplace health and safety, build closer involvement between stakeholders and HSE and provide clearer and simple information and advice in a more accessible way. More information about the 2004 Strategy is available. You may also be interested in the later 2009 Strategy.
Morecambe Bay: death of cockle-pickers (21 fatalities)
An incident occurred on the night of 5-6 February 2004 when 35 cockle pickers, most of whom were Chinese, were cut off by the tide as they worked on the cockle banks on Morecambe Bay. It is thought that 23 of the workers died, although only 21 bodies were recovered. HSE inspectors joined with the police in a major investigation into the incident. The Crown Prosecution Service brought criminal charges of manslaughter and facilitation against a number of individuals. Following the incident, HSE produced some practical guidelines for safe working in tidal areas and estuaries. Some organisers of cockling work also introduced some improvements to their work processes including: providing protective clothing and high-visibility garments using better vehicles and carrying dinghies, lifejackets and life rafts.
HSE's Infoline service received its 2 millionth call
The HSE Infoline public enquiry contact centre took its two millionth call in September 2004. Run by the National Britannia Group based in Caerphilly, Infoline was set up in July 1996 to provide health and safety information and access to expert sources of guidance and advice. While Infoline's services are available to anyone with an interest in workplace health and safety matters, the majority of enquiries come from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Enquirers can remain anonymous if they wish and all enquiries are treated confidentially. The most common queries relate to asbestos, the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) and health and safety requirements for setting up a new business.
[Update: In a move to improve efficiency further and deliver value for taxpayers, HSE's Infoline ended on 30 September 2011. See more about HSE's new arrangements for online reporting of injuries and incidents.]
HSC's 'Strategy for workplace health and safety to 2010 and beyond' launched
Explosion at ICL Plastic factory, Maryhill, Glasgow
An explosion occurred at the ICL Plastics factory in Maryhill, Glasgow on 11 May 2004. Nine people were killed in the incident and many more suffered injuries. The explosion occurred when liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) leaked from an underground metal pipe in the basement of the factory. The LPG ignited and the resulting explosion caused the building to collapse.
Lord Brian Gill was appointed to hold an Inquiry into the events that led up to the disaster. HSE inspectors and retired inspectors and the Chief Executive and the then Deputy Chief Executive gave evidence in the formal hearings. Lord Gill's report was published in July 2009 and outlined various recommendations for HSE as the body which (together with Local Authorities) regulates LPG hazards in industrial and commercial premises.
A series of explosions occurred at the Buncefield Oil Storage Depot at Hemel Hempstead in Hertfordshire on 11th December 2005. A large area of the site was engulfed by a fire which resulted from one of the initial massive explosions. Although more than 50 people were injured in the incident, no-one died. A large area around the Buncefield site was evacuated as a precaution. Many of the commercial and residential properties in the vicinity were damaged in the incident. The fire, which burned for several days, destroyed most of the site and released large plumes of black smoke into the atmosphere. The Health and Safety Executive and the Environment Agency launched a joint investigation into the incident. Five companies were prosecuted as a result of the incident. A series of recommendations from HSE was published under the title "Recommendations on land use planning and the control of societal risk around major hazard sites" and the investigation culminated in the publication of the Final report in December 2008.
Transfer of responsibility for railway safety from HSE to the Office of the Rail Regulator
HSE assumed responsibility for railway safety in 1990 when the Railway Inspectorate moved from the Department of Transport. The move took place following criticism of the Inspectorate for not protecting passengers adequately and for not using modern risk assessment techniques. During the period 1993 to 1996, British Rail was privatised and over a hundred companies took charge of the railways. This resulted in a major change to railway safety culture and risk management. HSE introduced a new regulatory framework to manage these changes and the key elements of the framework included new safety case and permissioning regimes. On 1 April 2006 railway safety passed to the Office of Rail and Road (ORR). More information about HSE's role in regulating the health and safety of the railway industry can be found in 'A farewell to trains'.
Workplace Health Connect launched
Workplace Health Connect was launched in February 2006 as a two year project pilot project to give advice on workplace health, safety and return to work issues. The advice given by the pilot was free, confidential and practical and was aimed at small and medium sized businesses (ie those with between 5 to 250 workers) in England and Wales. Workplace Connect was managed, funded and quality controlled by HSE but was independently run. It incorporated an Adviceline, a problem-solving visit service and a system of referrals to approved local specialists where appropriate. The pilot ended in February 2008.
Redgrave Court new headquarters officially opened
HSE's new headquarters building, Redgrave Court, based in Bootle, Merseyside was officially opened by HRH the Duke of York on 19 July 2006. Redgrave Court has provided a central base for staff and contractors who previously occupied six separate buildings. It has enabled staff to undertake new and more efficient ways of working, allowed for better use of resources and provided increased access to senior managers. A map of all HSE offices is available on the HSE Website.
Responsibility for the Adventure Activities Licensing Authority (AALA) passes to HSE.
The Adventure Activities Licensing Authority (AALA) was launched in 1996 and became HSE's responsibility in 2007. The AALA controls the licensing regime for the provision of adventure activities for young people within the scope of the Adventure Activities Licensing Regulations 2004 (AALR). HSE's Field Operations and Policy Group work with organisations in this sector to provide guidance, advice and support and to improve health and safety. More information about the work of the AALA is available via the AALA web pages.
Construction (Design and Management) Regulations (CDM 2007) (S.I. 2007/320) launched.
The CDM Regulations combine the CDM Regulations 2004 and the Construction (Health Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1996 into one regulatory package, aimed at alleviating the previous complex and at times, bureaucratic approach taken by many duty holders. The aim of the CDM Regulations is to reduce the risk of harm to workers who build, use, maintain and demolish structures. Effective planning and management of construction projects, from design concept onwards is at the heart of the Regulations. The aim is for health and safety considerations to be treated as a normal part of a project's development, not an afterthought or bolt-on extra. Find out more about the CDM Regulations.
Bill Callaghan is knighted for his services to health and safety
Bill Callaghan became Chair of the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) on 1 October 1999. During his career with HSC and HSE, Bill Callaghan championed the sensible risk message, had a leading role in ensuring that risks to health and safety in the workplace are properly controlled and has played a key role in developing the HSC/E Strategy to 2010. In 2007 Bill Callaghan was knighted for his services to health and safety. He left HSE on 27 Sept 2007 and was replaced by Judith E. Hackitt CBE.
Judith Hackitt appointed as new Chair of the Health and Safety Commission, following on from the retirement of Sir Bill Callaghan
Judith Hackitt was appointed as Chair of the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) on 1 October 2007. Ms Hackitt's five year appointment follows on from her previous role as a Commissioner of HSC during the period 2002 – 2005 and an assignment as Director of the European Chemical Industry Council's Chemistry for Europe project.
HSE takes on responsibility for the security activities of the Office for Nuclear Security (OCNS) and UK Safeguards Office (UKSO)
On 1 April 2007 the security activities of the Office for Civil Nuclear Security (OCNS) transferred to the Health and Safety Executive. This happened as a result of recommendations in the 2005 Hampton report. This means that HSE's Nuclear Directorate became the single point of contact for operational matters relating to nuclear safety, security and safeguards. You can find out more about the work of OCNS from HSE's Nuclear Directorate web pages.
The Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) European Union regulations come into force in the UK and across Europe
The Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of CHemicals (REACH) Regulations came into force on 1 June 2007, replacing several Regulations and European directives with a single system. One of the main requirements of REACH is for importers or manufacturers of substances to register them with the central European Chemicals Agency. The aim of this is to ensure that human health and the environment is protected by ensuring that manufacturers and importers understand and manage the risks associated with chemicals. REACH also allows substances to move freely on the EU market as well as allowing for free competition and innovation in the European chemicals industry.
Responsibility for the Adventure Licensing Authority (AALA) passes to HSE.
HSC/HSE merges to form one organisation
The Health and Safety Commission and Health and Safety Executive took the decision to merge their powers and functions to become a new unitary body with the name 'Health and Safety Executive'. The merger took place following a 2006 consultation exercise setting out the benefits of the merger. For more information, read the HSC/E merger enforcement statement.
Health and Safety (Offences) Act 2008
The Health and Safety (Offences) Act 2008 came into force on 16 January 2009. Under the provisions of the Act, offenders who break the law will be subjected to higher fines and longer sentences. The Act makes imprisonment an option for more health and safety offences in both the lower and higher courts. It also allows certain offences which at one time could only be tried in lower courts, be tried in the higher courts. However the main change which the Act has brought is to raise the maximum fine which may be imposed in the lower courts to £20,000 for most health and safety offences.
Pesticides Safety Directorate transfers to HSE
The Pesticides Safety Directorate (PSD) transferred from the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) to HSE on 1 April 2008 following recommendations of the 2005 Hampton Review of Regulators. The transfer allowed PSD and HSE to explore joint areas of interest for example on regulatory science and policy for chemicals, pesticides, detergents and biocides. PSD has retained a distinct identity in HSE and continues to have its policy set by Defra. More information is available on the PSD website.
Gas Safe Register - 10 year contract to Capita
A new registration scheme for gas engineers was launched on 1 April 2009. The scheme is known as the Gas Safe Register and is administered under a 10 year contract by the Capita Group Plc. Under the Gas Safe Register, Capita have made a commitment to deliver improvements to gas safety by raising awareness of domestic gas risks among consumers and by increasing public confidence in registered gas engineers and the safety of public gas work. Gas engineers will also benefit from the Gas Safe Register as they will have more flexible payment and registration options. The administrative burdens on them will also be reduced.
Health and safety law poster replaced - after 10 years service!
A new version of the health and safety law poster was published on 6 April 2009. The poster includes a list of basic points relating to health and safety in the workplace and it outlines what employers and workers must do to comply with the law. The health and safety poster must be displayed in all workplaces or if this is not possible, each employee must be given a copy of the leaflet version. Information about how to obtain the law poster or leaflets is available on the HSE Website.
HSE launches strategy for the health and safety of GB
HSE's new Strategy was launched in 2009 following the aim of the new 2008 Board to develop a 'renewed momentum to improve health and safety performance.' One of the key drivers for this is the fact that the combined rate of illness and injury in Great Britain is the same as it was in 2004. The Board wanted to build on existing strengths, develop new ways of engaging with the workforce and meet continuing challenges for health and safety. The Strategy explains that everyone has a role to play in improving health and safety in the workplace but there must be strong leadership and commitment to drive this forward. Training is described as a key component of the improvement process. The Strategy also reinforces HSE's role in inspection and enforcement along with monitoring hazardous industries to guard against possible catastrophes.
Health and Safety Pledge Forum launched
The Health and Safety Pledge Forum was launched on 24 February 2010 as part of HSE's 2009 Strategy The Health and Safety of Great Britain Be part of the solution. The Strategy encouraged organisations to show their commitment to workplace health and safety by signing the HSE Safety Pledge. HSE is keen for those who have signed the Pledge to share ideas for improving health and safety with each other or to work with HSE on collaborative ventures in risk management. The Pledge Forum helps this process by allowing pledge signers to share ideas and best practice and ask questions. It also contains a wealth of information on a range of topics including: worker protection absence management saving recruitment and insurance costs improving productivity reputation management and case studies for both small/medium sized businesses and large businesses.
HSE introduces new Safety Alerts
In 2010 HSE revised its Safety Bulletin system to improve the way it warns industry about problems with substances, equipment, procedures and processes that may cause injury. The information contained in the bulletins are gathered from a range of sources including inspections, research, investigations, advice from industry and the EU Commission. There are three types of bulletin: Alerts which are immediate and vital Notice which do not require immediate action but must be dealt with within a given timescale and Other information which needs to be shared with a wide audience or specific group or sector of industry. Safety Bulletins can be received via email, text message or RSS feed and are also available on the HSE Website. To check the Safety Bulletin titles that are available to you and sign up for those of interest, please visit the Health and Safety Bulletins sign up page.
The Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010 (S.I. 2010/1140)
The Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations 2010 aim to protect workers from health risks associated with exposure to hazardous sources of artificial optical radiation (AOR). The Regulations require employers who may expose workers to AOR to assess the risk of adverse health effects of AOR to the skin or eyes. This assessment should include measurements or calculations for the levels of radiation to which employees are exposed. It must also assess the level, wavelength and duration of exposure. Employers are require to reduce or eliminate exposure to AOR where practicable, provide appropriate information and training for employees and ensure that exposed employees have their health monitored and receive medical examinations. HSE has produced 'Guidance for Employers on the Control of Artificial Optical Radiation at Work Regulations (AOR) 2010' for those employers who would like to find out more about their responsibilities under the Regulations.
Lord Young's review of health and safety, 'Common Sense – Common Safety' is published
Lord Young's report was published on 15 October 2010 and sets out a series of recommendations for improving the way health and safety is applied in Great Britain and for reviewing today's 'compensation culture'. The review, commissioned by the Prime Minister, David Cameron, has a wider remit than HSE's sphere of responsibility, however HSE has welcomed Lord Young's review and has continued to offer information and participate in improvements where appropriate. To this end, HSE has co-operated with a number of organisations to develop the Occupational Safety Consultants Register (OSCR). This will go live in January 2011. HSE has also produced a series of risk assessment tools for offices, shops, classrooms and charity shops.
Occupational Safety Consultants Register (OSHCR)
The Occupational Safety Consultants Register (OSHCR) provides a source for identifying consultants who are qualified to provide general advice on health and safety to help UK businesses manage workplace risks. While many companies will feel confident about carrying out their own workplace risk assessments and implementing appropriate health and safety measures, those who need additional help can turn to OSHCR. The consultants listed in OSHCR are recognised by the key occupational health and safety organisations who participate in the OSHCR scheme. OSHCR can be used to search for consultants by keyword, industry, topic, county or by provision of free information.
The Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) launched 1 April
On 1 April 2011, the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) was established as an agency of the Health and Safety Executive. ONR's objective is to consolidate the functions of HSE's Nuclear Directorate including the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, the Office for Civil Nuclear Security and the UK Safeguards Office, as well as the Department for Transport's Radioactive Materials Transport Division. ONR is responsible for protecting people from the hazards inherent in the nuclear industry. It does this through enforcing relevant legislation and by encouraging the nuclear industry to aspire to an exemplary health and safety culture. ONR uses specialist advice from HSE and consultants and runs a nuclear safety studies programme to help it with inspection and assessment work. It also provides specialist assistance to various international energy organisations as well as nuclear regulators in a range of countries.
HSL celebrates 100 years
The Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) celebrated its centenary this year. HSL is a leading scientific health and safety research organisation specialising in work-related activities. It is based in Buxton and its origins can be traced back to a 1911 Government-funded initiative aimed at investigating explosions in coal mines. The Safety in Mines Research Board was formed 10 years later and its work was conducted in both Buxton and Sheffield. Over the next few years the Buxton site became the Explosion and Flame Laboratory while the Sheffield site focussed on safety engineering. The Occupational Medicine and Hygiene Laboratory in Cricklewood, North London joined the existing research teams in 1966. In 1995 the three laboratories were combined together to form HSL, as an agency of HSE. HSL moved to Buxton in 2004.
Lőfstedt report published
Professor Ragnar Lőfstedt's report: 'Reclaiming health and safety for all: an independent review of health and safety legislation' was published in November 2011. The report was commissioned by Employment Minister Chris Grayling as part of the Government's plan to overhaul the health and safety system in Britain. The report considers ways in which health and safety legislation can be combined, simplified or reduced so that the burden on British businesses can be alleviated. At the same time, it suggests how progress in improving health and safety in the workplace can continue. The report takes into account the views of employers' and employees' organisations, Government bodies, academics and professional health and safety organisations.
The Control of Asbestos Regulations 2012 (S.I. 2012/632) launched
The Regulations came into force in April 2012 and updated earlier asbestos regulations to take account of the fact that in the European Commission's view, the UK had not completely implemented the EU Directive on exposure to asbestos as set out in EU Directive 2009/148/EC). The changes brought about by the new Regulations are fairly small and mostly affect some types of non-licensed work with asbestos including medical surveillance, record keeping and notification of work.
Fee for Intervention (FFI) launched 1 October
HSE's new cost recovery scheme known as Fee for Intervention (FFI) came into force on 1 October 2012. FFI is administered under the Health and Safety (Fees) Regulations 2012 and is used to recover HSE's costs against those who contravene health and safety laws. The costs that are recouped in this way are those for inspection, investigation and taking enforcement action. FFI is designed to ensure that companies who break health and safety laws quickly put matters right. It will also discourage companies who try to undercut their competitors by flouting health and safety laws and putting people at risk. More information about FFI is available on the Fee for Intervention (FFI) web pages.
Gauda Kingdom Timeline - History
Jan 1 Japan is still under Allied (SCAP) military occupation. Japan's stock market prices have doubled in one year, and Japan's food situation has improved, but not enough for the US to discontinue food aid. It is costly being both humanitarian and a conqueror. Aid to Japan is costing the United States more than $1 million per day. The US wants Japan to develop foreign trade so that it can buy its own food. Many Japanese, meanwhile, are again visiting their Shinto shrines.
Jan 10 In China, morale is low among Chiang Kai-shek's troops. 300,000 of them surrender to the Communist army.
Jan 10 In the US, music on seven-inch vinyl disks hits the market. The disk plays at 45 rpm and replaces breakable 78 rpm records that had been around since 1910.
Jan 21 George C. Marshall retires. Dean Acheson replaces him as secretary of state.
Jan 22 In China, the advancing Communist army is replacing Chiang Kai-shek's authority in Beijing.
Jan 24 MacArthur does not fear a Communist takeover in Japan. Japanese Communists have been allowed to run in the nation's general election. The Democratic Liberal Party candidates (conservatives) win a majority of the votes. The Communists increase their seats from 4 to 35, out of 466 seats in Japan's lower legislative house.
Feb 8 In Hungary, Cardinal Mindszenty is sentenced to life imprisonment for treason. He has "confessed" his guilt. More people are convinced of the evil nature of "Communist" regimes.
Feb 12 The leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, Al-Banna, now back in Cairo, is shot and left to bleed to death on the floor of a hospital. His killer is unknown but many suspect an Egyptian government agent.
Feb 24 Israel signs an armistice with Egypt, seen by the Egyptians as merely ending military hostilities. The Israelis, on the other hand, want it to represent a permanent settlement. Egypt keeps control over the Gaza Strip and is not to allow Arabs there Egyptian citizenship or to migrate to Egypt.
Mar 1 In an interview in Tokyo, General MacArthur speaks of the Pacific Ocean as having become an Anglo-Saxon lake. He describes a line of defense for the US running from the Philippines, north through Okinawa and other Ryukyo islands, through Japan and the Aleutian Islands to Alaska. Dean Acheson is to agree with this assessment without thought of abandoning South Korea.
Mar 1 Nine months since his second and last fight with Jersey Joe Walcot, Joe Louis announces his retirement from boxing.
Mar 7 In Moscow, while talking to Stalin, North Korea's Kim Il Sung says he believes "the situation" makes it necessary and possible to liberate South Korea. Stalin disagrees and cites the USSR-USA agreement on the 38th parallel as dividing Korea and the possibility of an American intervention against a move by Kim's forces into the south.
Mar 23 Israel signs an armistice with Lebanon.
Mar 24 The academy award for best picture in 1948 goes to "Treasure of Sierra Madre."
Mar 25 The Soviet Union is conducting a program of deportations, said to number 92,000 people, from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to remote areas of the Soviet Union.
Mar 28 United States Secretary of Defense James Forrestal is mentally ill and resigns.
Apr 3 Israel signs an armistice with Syria and with Transjordan.
Apr 4 The North Atlantic Treaty is signed by Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the United States. It is the first peacetime military alliance for the United States.
Apr 11 The defeat of Arab forces by Israelis has shaken confidence in Syria's parliamentary democracy. A Syrian general, Husni al-Zaim, seizes power in a bloodless coup and temporarily imprisons Syria's president, Shukri al-Kuwatli. The coup has been carried out, it would be said, with discrete backing from the US embassy in Damascus, which did not plan the coup, or pay for it, but al-Zaim, it would be said, has promised the Americans to sign a peace treaty with Israel.
Apr 22 William F. Knowland, Republican from California, is concerned about the advancing Communist army in China, and in a speech in the Senate he accuses Secretary of State Dean Acheson of having "pulled the rug out from under" Chiang Kai-shek's government, and he demands an investigation. Events in China, meanwhile, are being driven by the hearts and minds of the Chinese, and there is widespread dislike for Chiang kai-shek's regime, and China's Communist forces are benefiting from it.
Apr 24 Communist troops have crossed that Yangtze River and take over what had been Chiang's capital city: Nanking. The Communists begin pushing toward Shanghai.
Apr 28 Speaking to the American Newspaper Publishers Association, former President Herbert Hoover calls for expelling Communist countries from the United Nations. His speech is greeted with "thunderous, almost impassioned ovation."
Apr 29 In the United States, George F. Kennan is concerned about public opinion. A critic of Soviet policies and an architect of the US policy of "containing" the Soviet Union, he draws from his experience as a diplomat in the Soviet Union and states publicly that the Russians are not an enemy of the American people, that they still believe in "decency, honesty, kindliness, and loyalty in the relations between individuals."
May 11 Israel becomes the 59th member state in the United Nations.
May 11 The Kingdom of Siam becomes the Kingdom of Thailand.
May 12 The Soviet Union responds to futility and lifts its blockade of Berlin.
May 22 James Forrestal, Secretary of Defense to March 28, is found dead on a third-floor roof below the 16th-floor kitchen across the hall from his room.
May 23 In West Germany, military occupation by the US, Britain and France ends. The Federal Republic of Germany is established. Austria remains under Allied occupation.
May 23 The first computer that has a stored program within it &ndash with lists of instructions and memory &ndash begins operation at Cambridge University in Britain. The computer can both calculate and control the sequence of calculations at electronic speed. It's a glorified calculator.
Jun 2 In what will now be called Jordan, King Abdullah has dropped the name Transjordan.
Jun 3 Israel is reported to be bargaining with Egypt regarding acquisition of the Gaza Strip and its absorption of Arabs there.
Jun 5 The Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini, has finished talks with the ruler of Syria, General Zaim. The Mufti's Palestinian regiment is to be attached to the Syrian Army.
Jun 5 The General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party, Matyas Rokosi, has denounced "chauvinism" and "cosmopolitanism" among Hungarian Communists and has begun a purge of people within the Party.
Jun 8 George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four is published. It's about Britain becoming super-Stalinist. It's about a political party driven by its desire for power. It allows only its own interpretations of history. Thought Crimes, Big Brother, Double Think, News-Speak and Room 101 are phrases from the book that will be popularized.
Jun 15 In Hungary, it is officially declared that the high ranking Communists, Laszlo Rajk and Tibor Szonyi, have been expelled from the Party because they are "spies and Trotskyist agents of foreign and imperialist powers." Rokosi has seen Rajk as a rival and as insufficiently Stalinist.
Jun 29 The last US troops withdraw from South Korea.
Jul 4 In the US the Department of Classroom Teachers, representing 350,000 teachers, unanimously opposes loyalty oaths.
Jul 15 President Truman establishes a national housing policy, providing federal aid to slum clearance programs and low-cost housing projects.
Jul 20 Iraq has withdrawn its troops from Palestine and leaves Jordan in possession of much on the west bank of the Jordan River &ndash the West Bank. Israel controls western Jerusalem and Jordan controls the rest of Jerusalem.
Jul 27 The first production passenger jet airliner, the de Havilland Comet, makes its maiden flight. The plane is British.
Jul 29 Under economic and diplomatic pressure from the United States, the Netherlands government agrees with Indonesian leaders to a cease fire.
Aug 5 In Ecuador an earthquake of only 6.75 on the Richter scale destroys 50 towns and kills about 6,000 people.
Aug 5 In the United States, Secretary of State Dean Acheson proclaims that the failures of the Chinese National Government ". do not stem from any inadequacy of American aid. Our military observers on the spot have reported that the Nationalist armies did not lose a single battle during the crucial year of 1948 through lack of arms or ammunition."
Aug 6 In Damascus, Syria, a synagogue is bombed and six or seven persons killed and twenty-seven injured. The bombing is believed to be a demonstration against peace negotiations with Israel conducted by the United Nations.
Aug 8 For the last two years India has been handling Bhutan's foreign affairs, a task it was given by the British. Today, Bhutan becomes completely independent.
Aug 14 Syria's new ruler, Husni al-Zaim, has made enemies by proposing to give women the vote and allowing them freedom from wearing the veil, by raising taxes, signing a cease-fire with Israel and by associating with US oil companies in the building of a Trans-Arabian pipeline. He is overthrown by his military colleagues, and he and his prime minister, Muhsen al-Barazi, are shot dead.
Aug 28 The last significant area held by Greece's leftist guerrillas is taken by the government in Athens.
Aug 29 The Soviet Union tests an atomic bomb.
Sep 1 In the last twelve years in Britain the divorce rate has increased tenfold.
Sep 4 It's Labor Day. Near Peekskill, New York, a pro-union celebration and concert to benefit the Civil Rights Congress is taking place. Paul Robeson and Pete Seeger sing. The local American Legion, Veterans of Foreign Wars, and Jewish and Catholic veterans' groups had urged people to demonstrate against the gathering, believing they were defending the American way. Robeson had said, "It's America. I have a right to sing. I'm going to sing." Instead of tolerating the freedom of their fellow citizens to assemble peaceably, the mob blocked the roadway. They shouted "nigger bastards" and "Jew bastards". Later they attacked concert-goers physically. When Pete Seeger and his family left at the end of the concert they passed through a hail of rocks and a chorus of "Go back to Russia! Kikes! Nigger-lovers!" (Seeger describes the event.) Soviet news sources used the event to publicize their view of life in the United States.
Sep 11 Stalin orders his embassy in North Korea to examine the military, political and international aspects of a possible invasion by North Korea into South Korea.
Sep 13 The Soviet Union vetoes United Nations membership for Ceylon, Finland, Iceland, Italy, Jordan and Portugal.
Sep 15 The Yugoslav government has denounced the coming trial of Laszlo Rack in Hungary as a hoax aimed against Yugoslavia, and it accuses the Soviet Union of spurring the trial.
Sep 16 The trial against Rajk and seven other defendants opens. Rajk names Cardinal Mindszenty, now in prison, as the leader of a Vatican scheme to help him take over the Hungarian Government by inciting anti-government riots to coincide with a coup. In the Soviet Union, The Soviet press describes Marshal Tito of Yugoslavia as on trial in Hungary as well as Laszlo Rajk.
Sep 17 In the treason trial in Hungary, Winston Churchill is named as one of the plotters, among Americans and the Yugoslavs in a scheme to seize power in the Balkans.
Sep 22 In court, all eight defendants in the Hungarian treason trial confess their guilt.
Sep 23 President Truman tells the people of the United States of the Soviet Union having tested an atom bomb.
Sep 24 Laszlo Rajk and co-defendants are sentenced to death.
Sep 29 The Soviet Union announces that it has formally denounced its treaty of friendship, mutual assistance and post-war cooperation with Yugoslavia.
Sep 30 Hungary renounces its 1947 treaty of treaty of friendship and mutual assistance with Yugoslavia.
Oct 1 At Tiananmen Square, standing before 300,000 people, Mao Zedong, in a high-pitched voice, declares the founding of the People's Republic of China. In the United Nations, a representative of Chiang Kai-shek's "nationalist" Chinese complains that if the Communists in China win a "full victory," they will send men and arms and imperil a half-dozen neighboring states.
Oct 7 The Soviet Union's zone of occupation in East Germany is officially proclaimed as an independent state: Democratic Republic of Germany.
Oct 15 Laszlo Rajk is hanged.
Nov 2 The Netherlands officially recognizes the end of its colonialism in Indonesia. "Unconditionally and irrevocably" it recognizes Indonesia as a federation of autonomous states. The Dutch did not recognize, however, Indonesia's claim to the western half of New Guinea, known also as West Irian.
Dec 8 From China, anti-Communist forces have finished their evacuation to Taiwan. Most Taiwanese consider themselves Taiwanese rather than Chinese and they resent the invasion, dictatorial impositions, bullying and thievery of the invading Chinese.
Dec 14 Stalin has been putting pressure on the Bulgarian Communist Party, and other East European Communist parties, to adhere to the Soviet way of looking at things. Traicho Kostov, who helped lead the Communist Party in Bulgaria in 1944, has not followed the Stalin line closely enough. He has been forced from power by Bulgarian Stalinists, and on this day he is shot.
Interactive Timeline: Explore the History of Fantasyland at Magic Kingdom Park
The December 6 grand opening celebration for New Fantasyland is fast approaching, and in honor of the debut of this wonderful expansion, we thought we’d share a look back at the full history of Fantasyland here at Magic Kingdom Park.
Our Fantasyland Timeline begins in 1965, when Walt Disney announced to the world that a Disney theme park would be built here in Central Florida. It then continues through construction, the opening day of Magic Kingdom Park, and the many changes the land has undergone over the park’s 41-year history.
It also features never-before-released photos from the beginning of Fantasyland and Magic Kingdom Park, as well as Walt Disney Imagineering videos from the New Fantasyland expansion. And be sure to keep checking back as we update the site.
Keep an eye on the Disney Parks Blog and follow @WaltDisneyWorld on Twitter for the latest on New Fantasyland. While you’re on Twitter, join in the conversation by using the hashtag #NewFantasyland.
I was able to open the link in google chrome, for those who were having problems with IE
The others are right, that page chokes on IE, Firefox loads the page in with no problems.
That was wonderful! Thank you for sharing that.
Unfortunately the page isn’t working with either the most recent version of IE or Chrome browers.
The link is spazzing out. It keeps flashing from a screen with a blue background and the moon to a blank white screen…
Website worked for me! Really cool to look at all the changes over the years.
This is Awesome! Thanks for sharing.
(If you’re using Firefox, it will work.)
The Timeline website doesn’t work. I think it needs some more testing in the lab or something.
Thanks Jennifer,Ya’ll make our day.
That was awesome! Thanks for sharing!
Readers viewing on certain browsers are experiencing some difficulties that we’re working on. I hope to have an update soon!
Excited about the new Fantasyland. Hoping Disney will give some sort of discount or special offer for all the families in the east devastated by the hurricane that would love to take their families to disney right now.