A former name retained.
( SP-512: dp. 499; 1. 197'6"; b. 32'6"; d. 17'; s. 10
k.;cpl.75; a.4 3")
Guinevere (SP-512) was built by George Lawley & Sons, Boston, Mass., in 1908 and acquired from her owner, Edgar Palmer of New York, 10 June 1917. She commissioned 20 July 1917, Lt. Guy Davis in command.
Sailing from the Newport Coaling Station 1 August 1917, Guinevere reached Brest, France, 29 August, after stops at St. Johns, Newfoundland, and the Azores. From there she patrolled the French coast and escorted convoys to Quiberon, Ushant, Lorient, and St. Nazaire. Guinevere ran aground and was wrecked off the French coast 26 January 1918, with no loss of life; the wreck was purchased by Societe Americaine de Sauvetage 30 June 1919.
List of U.S. military vessels named after women
Many vessels named after women have seen military service, often serving with distinction. Most of these were named in civilian service and then subsequently commissioned into the United States Navy.
Few ships have been named after women by the military. Ships often are named after people who served in the Navy or who served in the government. Women have only recently been in such prominent positions, and therefore few have been so honored by the Navy.
Guinevere SP-512 - History
(Tr: t. 290 1. 139'6" b. 237' dr. 10' (mean) s. 12 k. cpl. 35 a. 13", 2 .30-cal. Colt mg., 1 .30-cal. Lewis mg.)
Raymond J. Anderton-a wooden-hulled, single-screw "Menhaden fisherman"-type trawler built in 1911 at Noank (a district within Groton), Conn., by Robert Palmer and Sons operated, by 1917 by the Atlantic Fertilizer and Oil Co-was "enrolled" and purchased by the Navy on 7 June 1917 and ordered delivered on 18 June. However, prior to her commissioning, the ship's name was changed by General Order No. 314 of 28 July 1917 to simply Anderton. Nevertheless, despite the order, Anderton would sometimes in the future be referred to by her full former name, or as R. J. Anderton.
Designated SP-530 and commissioned at the Boston Navy Yard on 18 August 1917, Chief Boatswain Frederick L. Muller in command, Anderton was fitted out there, assigned to Squadron 4, Patrol Force, and earmarked for duty along the coast of France. Additional "Menhaden Fishermen" soon swelled the ranks of the squadron which soon proceeded via the Azores to Brest where they arrived on 18 September. At the outset, the trawlers were assigned coastal convoy duty in order to familiarize the crews of the ships with the coast and channels-work for which they soon proved to be ill-suited.
The loss of Rehoboth (SP-384) on 4 October-which had foundered off Ushant-prompted the withdrawal of the trawlers from open-sea work and their assignment to the task of minesweeping. Anderton, one of the first four ships in the unit to have her minesweeping gear installed, departed Brest on 3 December in company with three of her near sisters, and, on the 6th, put over her "kites" for exercises in Quiberon Bay. To Anderton went the honor of exploding the first mine caught in her sweep gear, on 13 February 1918 on 21 February Anderton and McNeal (SP-333) cut two a piece.
Squadron 4's loss of two other ships around this time highlighted the danger lurking in those coastal waters. On 12 January 1918, Bauman (SP-377), while operating in a fog near Concarneau, struck a rock and began taking on water. Anderton sped to rescue but, despite her best efforts to tow the disabled sister to port Bauman sank before she could be brought into Lorient. Within two weeks, the sqaudron flagship, the yacht Guinevere (SP-512) was lost in much the same fashion.
For the remainder of hostilities in World War I, Anderton operated out of Lorient. Besides sweeping duty and covering the convoy routes from Penmarch to Bouy de Boeuf fs, Anderton and her sisters reinforced coastal convoys as required, cleared the Teignouse Channel and other important passages for troopships in the vicinity of Belle Isle and, when the activities of the Central Powers' submarines demanded it, operated at night off Penmarch, with her primitive listening gear ("sea tubes") in operation to detect U-boats.
Illustrating this escort work, when the transport Mount Vernon was torpedoed on 5 September 1918, Barnegat (SP-1232) and Anderton assisted her into Brest for repairs. Since drifting mines were unaware of the end to hositilities, sweeping had to continue in the weeks following the armistice to make sure that shipping could travel safely. Finally, in the spring of 1919, when their work in France had finally been completed, Anderton and her sister ships prepared for the voyage home. They set out from Brest on the morning of 27 April 1919, but rough weather soon forced them to return to port. As Anderton did so, she towed the disabled Courtney (SP-375), but the latter sank that evening about 25 minutes before the returning convoy sighted Armen light. A northwesterly gale made the sea very rough, and the remaining ships had to fight heavy seas, snow, and hail squalls before they reached haven at Brest on the afternoon of the 28th. Two other trawlers, Douglas (SP-313) and James (SP-429), had also gone down.
Anderton remained at Brest through the summer of 1919, and was ultimately decommissioned there on 8 September 1919. While some of her sister ships were sold abroad, Anderton went back to her prewar owner. She operated under her full original name, Raymond J. Anderton, until 1922.
Guinevere SP-512 - History
USS Migrant (IX-66) on 1 December 1942
Click on this photograph for links to larger images of this class.
Class: Small IX: Auxiliary Schooners etc. (2)
Design Small acquired. These specifications are for IX-66.
Displacement (tons): 1,300 light, 661 gross
Dimensions (feet): 223.25' oa, 168.1' wl x 34.25' x 15.0'
Original Armament: 1-3"/50SP 4-20mm (1942: IX-66 and 67)
Later armaments: 1-3"/23SP 1-40mmS 4-20mm (1943: IX-66)
4-20mm (1945: IX-67)
Small or none (others)
Complement 68 (1944)
Speed (kts.): 11.5
Propulsion (HP): 950
Machinery: 1 screw, Bessemer diesel (190 NHP)
|65||BLUE DOLPHIN||17 Mar 42||Shelburne SB||--||1926||6 Apr 42|
|66||MIGRANT||21 Mar 42||George S. Lawley & Sons||--||1929||19 May 42|
|67||GUINIVERE||24 Mar 42||George S. Lawley & Sons||--||1921||16 Jun 42|
|69||PURITAN||5 May 42||Electric Boat||--||1931||19 May 42|
|70||GLORIA DALTON||11 May 42||Craig SB, Long Beach||--||1925||30 May 42|
|65||BLUE DOLPHIN||28 Jun 45||11 Jul 45||14 Sep 45||MC/S||14 Sep 45|
|66||MIGRANT||3 Aug 45||13 Aug 45||3 Jan 46||MC/S||3 Jan 46|
|67||GUINIVERE||2 Aug 45||13 Aug 45||25 Apr 46||MC/S||25 Apr 46|
|69||PURITAN||27 Sep 43||28 Jun 44||18 Nov 44||MC/S||18 Nov 44|
|70||GLORIA DALTON||1 Oct 43||28 Jun 44||28 Dec 44||MC/S||28 Dec 44|
FY 1942 (IX 66-67), FY 1942 BuShips Maintenance funds (others). The specifications above are for IX-66, those for the others are in the Ship Notes.
IX-65: On 10 Mar 42 CNO asked BuShips to negotiate for the acquisition of the auxiliary schooner yacht BLUE DOLPHIN for the sum of $1.00 as a gift to the Navy from her owner, Mr. Amory Coolidge of Boston, Mass. The schooner had been designed by W. J. Roué and built in Shelburne, Nova Scotia. She was assigned to the 1st Naval District on 25 Mar 42 for duty as station vessel at Casco Bay. The vessel arrived on 26 Mar 42 at the yard of George Lawley & Son, Neponset, Mass. for conversion and completed conversion on 5 Apr 42. She had a 75' foremast of hard pine and a 104' mainmast of Oregon fir. She was sold back to Mr. Coolidge in September 1945 for $1.00. In 1948 she was acquired by David C. Nutt, who had served as Executive Officer of BOWDOIN (IX-50) on voyages to Greenland between 1941 and 1943. He based BLUE DOLPHIN in Boothbay Harbor, Maine, and refitted her for Arctic oceanographic research. From 1949 to 1954 the ship surveyed the fjords and estuaries of Labrador conducting research that resulted in a vital baseline for the thermal and compositional history of subarctic estuaries which contained cold Arctic bottom waters. By the late 1970s BLUE DOLPHIN was a wreck at Sarnia, Ontario. It was later moved to Detroit and can still be seen there on Google Maps at the former Precision Marine, Inc., at 21 St. Jean Street.
IX 66-67: On 14 Mar 42 CNO asked the Maritime Commission to acquire the auxiliary schooner yachts MIGRANT and GUINEVERE and authorized Com-3 to accept them. VCNO designated them IX 66-67 on 8 Apr 42. The auxiliary power was diesel in IX-66 and diesel-electric in IX-67 with 2 diesels, 2 generators, and 2 motors. MIGRANT was one of the last of the very large pre-World War II schooner yachts and had been designed by Henry J. Gielow and built at Neponset, Mass., for Carl Tucker. GUINEVERE, an earlier vessel of the same type, had been designed by A. L. Swasey and Raymond Page, built at Neponset, Mass., and owned by Edgar Palmer, who had built her to replace an earlier GUINEVERE (SP-512) that the Navy had purchased in 1917 and lost in 1919. Both schooners were assigned to the Eastern Sea Frontier in April 1942, based in Boston, and reassigned to the 1st Naval District in April 1944. IX-66, acquired from Mr. Tucker, was converted by Sullivan Dry Dock, Brooklyn, N.Y., and lost her foremast, while IX-67, probably acquired from Mr. Palmer, was converted by Marine Basin Co., Brooklyn, N.Y., and retained all three masts. In addition to their guns both vessels had two depth charge tracks with 300-pound depth charges, two single depth charge projectors, two Mousetrap ASW rocket launchers, all probably fitted in late 1942. They also had sonar and radar and in their early days sometimes conducted sonar searches in mid-Atlantic under sail. IX-67 initially patrolled off Newfoundland and Labrador and occasionally as far as Iceland. She was later turned over to an all-black crew for rescue duty off Boston. In November 1944 Com-1 reported that IX-67 was assigned duties connected with the protection of shipping in the approaches to Boston and for sea rescue purposes and that her services could not be dispensed with without replacement by an equally capable vessel. On 5-6 April 1945 IX-67 assisted the tanker ATLANTIC STATES which had been torpedoed off Cape Cod. Navy records consistently spelled the name of IX-67 as GUINIVERE, although the correct spelling was probably GUINEVERE. Photographs suggest that the overall length listed for MIGRANT and perhaps GUINIVERE included the bowsprit. MIGRANT was sold to the Boston Boat and Engine Co., Boston, Mass., in January 1946, converted to a cargo ship in 1947, renamed FIMBER (British) 1952, and sank off Cape Samana 13 Jul 53 after an engine room explosion. GUINIVERE was sold to Dave Johnson of East St. Louis, Ill., in April 1946 and disappeared from merchant ship registers in 1949. She was last reported to be in the Mediterranean, probably in the 1950s.
IX-69: On 21 Apr 42 CNO asked WSA to acquire the auxiliary steel schooner PURITAN and authorized Com-11 to accept her. Her IX number was assigned on 20 May 42. This schooner had been designed by John G. Alden and built at Groton, Conn. She was purchased from Harry G. Bauer of Los Angeles, an entrepreneur who in 1933 had become President of Edison International, and the vessel was sold back to him in 1944 and returned to service as the yacht PURITAN. Bauer was later co-sponsor of the Puritan-American Museum of Natural History expedition to Baja California in 1957, which was carried out on board his PURITAN. The schooner left Newport, California, on 5 Mar 57 and returned on 6 Jun 57 after logging 4,032 miles. She was transferred to Panamanian registry in 1967.
On the Cool, Clear Frio River
Families enjoy swimming, dancing and hiking
Fun traditions and beautiful scenery bring people back to Garner State Park time after time. Besides easy access to the Frio, the park offers many miles of hiking trails and camping options.
Things to Do
Garner State Park is a great place to visit for a swim or hike, or to enjoy a relaxing weekend. With 2.9 miles of Frio River winding through 1,774 acres of scenic Hill Country terrain, the park offers lots to see and do!
Swim in the Frio River or float its waters on an inner tube, operate a paddle boat, and hike 16 miles of scenic trails. You can also camp, study nature, picnic, canoe, fish, play miniature golf, geocache and ride bikes. And, of course, you can dance.
If you plan to swim or float at the park, read through our swimming safety tips before you come.
Overnight visitors can stay in screened shelters, cabins or campsites. Large groups can rent the screened shelter or group campsite. The park’s concessionaire sells meals and snacks during the busy season, and rents the pavilion in the off season.
Learn more about the park’s features at the visitor center. You can also shop for souvenirs.
Summer Dance: Since the 1940s, young folks (and the young at heart) have been gathering at the park’s concession building on summer evenings for a jukebox dance. They still do so today. Arrive early, as parking lots get full and gates can close as early as 8:30 p.m.
The concession building and dance pavilion, as well as other park facilities, were built by the Civilian Conservation Corps. To learn more about the CCC, visit our History page.
Visitors can rent paddle boats, kayaks and inner tubes, as well as tables, barbecue pits, heaters and fans. The park’s concessionaire operates a tube shuttle and putt-putt golf course during busy seasons. Rent a small locker near the boathouse for stashing your valuables. For more information, visit Garner State Park Concessions.
Volunteers play a vital role at Garner State Park. You can serve as a park host, maintain trails, help restore habitat, lead educational programs, or tackle other park tasks. We need your help! Look for volunteer jobs online.
Learn about the park’s CCC history, traditions and nature from a ranger. Rangers lead nature hikes. They offer programs on geocaching and geology, as well as programs for kids. Check the Events page for upcoming events, or contact the park to arrange special programs for your group.
Visit the Briscoe-Garner Museum to learn about two famous Texas politicians. Fort Inge, once a frontier fort and Texas Ranger camp, now hosts occasional star parties. In summer, join a Frio Bat Flight tour to see the nightly exodus of one of the largest Mexican free-tailed bat colonies in the world. Visit the Uvalde Visitors Center and the Frio Canyon Chamber of Commerce for more information.
Other TPWD parks nearby include Hill Country, Lost Maples and Devil’s Sinkhole state natural areas, and Kickapoo Cavern State Park.
The Baroque family is one of the few nobles on the Land of Dawn. The most prestigious skill of theirs, fencing, the family's forte, discourages countless opponents from even thinking about attacking. In addition, beauty and wisdom are also the most perfect genetic signs of the Baroque family, just like the eternal beauty and love of Violet.
WorId-famous as Baroque family's fencing is, young Guinevere doesn't like it at all. Just like other girls, she is naturally fond of gorgeous things. From youth, she was sent to the Magic Academy. Relying on her own sensitive spiritual perception and anti-gravity magic, With her own interpretation, when Guinevere was 10 years old. She successfully combined mental perception with super energy and invented multiple magic effects magic Superpower. Such a breakthrough made Guinevere more passionate about magic, and she often experimented with her new magic on her brother Lancelot . No matter how Lancelot hides, He will be found by his sister. Therefore. Lancelot is often caught in an unknown thrill. In his childhood, his sister was always causing him a headache. But anyhow, Lancelot still loves Guinevere. He always shows a smile to his beloved sister. But every time when Lancelot thinks of his little sister's Magic experiment, He would wear a bitter smile.
Recently, something has been plaguing Guinevere, making her uneasy. It is said that the Paxley nobles who have a very high magical status have proposed marriage to the Baroque family. Guinevere is undoubtedly the most suitable choice and Guinevere‘s father seems to be very willing with the marriage. But the reluctant Guinevere suddenly thinks of an idea She hopes to find her brother Lancelot .
Is "King Arthur: Legend of the Sword" a True Story? Not Exactly
"We don't have any contemporary evidence for King Arthur as a historical figure," says historian Chris Snyder of Marymount College. "He may have existed. He certainly existed in the minds of the Britons as a figurehead for their resistance against the Saxons." The Germanic tribes known as the Saxons pressed into the island of Britain from the east, and according to medieval legend, a dynamic prince named Arthur led British forces against the Saxons in the late 5th and early 6th centuries AD. -History.com
When did the legend of King Arthur first appear in history?
Are The Mage and Guinevere the same person?
If you're wondering if Astrid Bergès-Frisbey's character The Mage is Guinevere or an entirely separate character, then you're not alone. Plenty of others have asked that question too. The Mage essentially translates into "the magician." The character is not a Merlin-esque version of Guinevere, but is rather an entirely separate character. "There are so many characters," says director Guy Ritchie of the legend. "We hardly touch on Merlin, we don't touch on Guinevere, we don't really deal with the peripheral knights" (South China Morning Post). The lack of Guinevere in the movie is partly due to the fact that the film focuses on the time period prior to when Arthur becomes king (there are plans for five more films if Legend of the Sword does well). The Mage herself is an integral part of Arthur's fight in the movie. She has the psychic ability to control animals and helps Arthur to realize his true power.
Was Londinium a real city in Britain?
When did the modern telling of King Arthur first appear, including his magical sword Excalibur, wife Guinevere, and wizard Merlin?
King Arthur as we know him today is mainly drawn from Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudohistorical 12th-century book Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain), in which he wrote the first life story of Arthur. Combining myth and fact in a tantalizing way, the Welsh cleric described Arthur's magic sword Caliburn (later renamed Excalibur), Queen Guinevere, the wizard Merlin, and the loyal knight Lancelot. It is unknown how much of Manmouth's book was invented by him and how much he drew from earlier folktales, which themselves have been debated with regard to historical significance. Many of these tales had been circulated orally for some 700 years, so if an actual Arthur did exist, there was a lot of time for his true story to become misconstrued and exaggerated. In 1155, Wace's Norman language adaptation of Manmouth's book included King Arthur's court, the Knights of the Round Table. Wace did not take credit for creating the Round Table but rather attributed it to earlier Breton writings, a claim that has been debated.
Is the villainous King Vortigern, portrayed by Jude Law, based on a real person?
The existence of the evil King Vortigern is almost as equally contested as Arthur's existence. In the movie, he kills Arthur's parents to take the throne when Arthur is a small child. This is invention and is not part of Geoffrey of Monmouth's The History of the Kings of Britain, which is considered to contain the most well-known story of Vortigern. In earlier writings, Vortigern is mentioned as possibly being a 5th-century Briton warlord. However, as with Arthur, scholars have debated the details of those writings. It has even been suggested that Vortigern might be a title instead of a name, since in Brittonic Vortigern means "Great King" or "Overlord". However, the latter part of the name includes the element *tigerno, which was a regularly occurring element in Brittonic personal names.
Did castles really exist at the time when King Arthur supposedly lived?
So how much of King Arthur: Legend of the Sword is based on a true story?
Likely very little. Given that early texts that mention Arthur have been called into question with regard to their historical accuracy, including Nennius' Historia Brittonum, there will likely never be a way of knowing if King Arthur was a real person or a fictional hero whose reputation spread via folklore. Historians land on both sides of the debate. What is much clearer is that other elements of the story, like the wizard Merlin, Arthur's sword Excalibur, wife Guinevere, and his Knights of the Round Table, are almost entirely fictional and appear together in Geoffrey of Monmouth's c. 1136 AD chronicle The History of the Kings of Britain or its later adaptations. Monmouth's fantastical work is not regarded as being a true story and historians give it no value as history. As for other exaggerated and fantasy-based elements of the movie, like the giant mammoths, squid-human hybrids, and the supernatural abilities of the characters, these details were included to give the film more of a Lord of the Rings feel.
So when you're watching King Arthur: Legend of the Sword, enjoy the movie but take what you see with a grain of salt, and even that grain is probably mostly fiction.
Watch a King Arthur documentary that explores the myth about the legendary British hero, including whether he was a real person, then view the King Arthur: Legend of the Sword trailer.
Naval/Maritime History 18th of June - Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
HMS Agamemnon was a 64-gun third-rate ship of the line of the British Royal Navy. She saw service in the Anglo-French War, French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and fought in many of the major naval battles of those conflicts. She is remembered as being Nelson's favourite ship, and was named after the mythical ancient Greek king Agamemnon, being the first ship of the Royal Navy to bear the name.
The future Lord Nelson served as Agamemnon's captain from January 1793 for 3 years and 3 months, during which time she saw considerable service in the Mediterranean. After Nelson's departure, she was involved in the infamous 1797 mutinies at Spithead and the Nore, and in 1801 was present at the first Battle of Copenhagen, but ran aground before being able to enter the action.
Despite Nelson's fondness for the ship, she was frequently in need of repair and refitting, and would likely have been hulked or scrapped in 1802 had war with France not recommenced. She fought at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October 1805, as part of Nelson's weather column, where she forced the surrender of the Spanish four-decker Santísima Trinidad. Agamemnon's later career was served in South American waters off Brazil.
Her worn-out and poor condition contributed to her being wrecked when in June 1809 she grounded on an uncharted shoal in the mouth of the River Plate, whilst seeking shelter with the rest of her squadron from a storm. All hands and most of the ship's stores were saved, but the condition of the ship's timbers made it impossible to free the ship her captain was cleared of responsibility for the ship's loss thanks to documents detailing her defects. Recently, the wreck of Agamemnon has been located, and several artefacts have been recovered, including one of her cannons.
Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines with inboard detail, and longitudinal half-breadth for Raisonnable (1768), and later for Agamemnon (1781) and Belliqueux (1780), all 64-gun Third Rate, two-deckers. Signed by Thomas Slade [Surveyor of the Navy, 1755-1771], and John Williams [Surveyor of the Navy, 1765-1784]
French Revolutionary War
In anticipation of the start of Britain's involvement in the French Revolutionary War after the execution of King Louis XVI, Agamemnon was recommissioned on 31 January 1793. She was placed under the command of Captain Horatio Nelson, and after provisioning joined the fleet lying at anchor at the Nore. She subsequently sailed to join the Mediterranean fleet under Vice-Admiral Hood, which was blockading the French port of Toulon. On 27 August the town of Toulon declared its allegiance to the Royalist Bourbon cause, and Hood's fleet moved in to take control of the naval dockyard and the 30 French ships of the line that were in the harbour. After capturing 19 of the ships, Agamemnon was sent to Naples to ask King Ferdinand IV for reinforcements with which to secure the town he agreed to provide 4,000 men. When the revolutionary army, commanded by Napoleon Buonaparte, launched its assault against Toulon, the troops proved insufficient to hold it, and they were forced to abandon the town. Later in the autumn, Agamemnon fought the inconclusive Action of 22 October 1793 against a French frigate squadron off Sardinia.
In April and May 1794, seamen from Agamemnon, led by Nelson, helped capture the Corsican town of Bastia. The French surrendered on 21 May, after a 40-day siege. After this action, Agamemnon was forced to sail to Gibraltar to undergo urgent repairs, the ship having become very worn out after just 16 months at sea, despite having undergone a fairly extensive refit just prior to being recommissioned. Upon completion of her repairs, Agamemnon returned to Corsica, anchoring south of Calvi on 18 June. After Hood arrived with additional ships, Agamemnon contributed guns and men to the 51-day siege of Calvi, during which time Nelson lost the sight in his right eye when a French shot kicked sand and grit into his face. The town surrendered on 10 August, Agamemnon having lost six men in the engagement. Shortly thereafter the inhabitants of Corsica declared themselves to be subjects of His Majesty King George III.
Agamemnon (left) battling Ça Ira on 13 March 1795. The frigates HMS Inconstant (left, background) and Vestale (right) are also visible.
Agamemnon, still with the Mediterranean fleet—now under Vice-Admiral William Hotham, who had superseded Hood in December 1794—participated in the Battle of Genoa when a French fleet, comprising 15 ships of the line, was sighted on 10 March 1795. Three days later, the French having shown no signs that they were willing to give battle, Admiral Hotham ordered a general chase. The French ship Ça Ira lost her fore and main topmasts when she ran into one of the other ships of the French fleet, Victoire, allowing HMS Inconstant to catch up with and engage her. Agamemnon and Captain came up to assist soon after, and continued firing into the 80-gun French ship until the arrival of more French ships led to Admiral Hotham signalling for the British ships to retreat. Ça Ira was captured the following day, along with Censeur, which was towing her, by Captain and Bedford.
On 7 July 1795, whilst in company with a small squadron of frigates, Agamemnon was chased by a French fleet of 22 ships of the line and 6 frigates. Due to adverse winds, Admiral Hotham was unable to come to her aid until the following day, and the French fleet was sighted again on 13 July, off the Hyères Islands. Hotham signalled for his 23 ships of the line to give chase, and in the ensuing Battle of the Hyères Islands, Agamemnon was one of the few Royal Navy ships to engage the enemy fleet. The French ship Alcide struck her colours during the battle, only to catch fire and sink. Many of the other French ships were in a similar condition Agamemnon and Cumberland were manoeuvring to attack a French 80-gun ship when Admiral Hotham signalled his fleet to retreat, allowing the French to escape into the Gulf of Fréjus. Admiral Hotham was later greatly criticised for calling off the battle, and was relieved as Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean by Admiral Sir John Jervis at the end of the year.
Nelson was promoted to Commodore on 11 March. Shortly thereafter, in the action of 31 May 1796, boats from Agamemnon and Nelson's squadron captured a small convoy of French vessels off the Franco-Italian coast, while suffering minimal casualties.
On 10 June 1796 Nelson transferred his pennant to HMS Captain, Captain John Samuel Smith replacing him as Agamemnon's commander. Having been deemed in great need of repair, Agamemnon then returned to England.
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
26 January 1800 - HMS Brazen (18), James Hanson, was driven by a gale on to the Ave Rocks near Newhaven and was destroyed
HMS Brazen was the French privateer Invincible General Bonaparte (or Invincible Bonaparte or Invincible Buonaparte), which the British captured in 1798. She is best known for her wrecking in January 1800 in which all but one of her crew drowned.
Invincible General Bonaparte was a French privateer of 20 guns and 170 men under the command of Jean Pierre Lamothe and under the ownership of Salanche, Bordeaux. The frigate Boadicea captured her on 9 December 1798. She was sixteen days out of Bordeaux and reportedly had not made any captures.
However, a privateer by the same name had taken and burned Friendship, Smith, master, which had been sailing from St Ube's to Falmouth. Boadiceasent Invincible Buonaparte, of "18 guns and 175 men" into Portsmouth.
The prize arrived at Spithead on 18 December and in time the Admiralty decided to purchase her. The Admiralty renamed her Brazen and established her as an 18-gun sloop of war.
Brazen was fitted for service in the Channel and Captain James Hanson, who had sailed with Captain George Vancouver (1791-4), commissioned her on 19 October 1799. Two weeks later, Captain Andrew Sproule, Commander of the Brighton Sea Fencibles wrote to Captain Henry Cromwell drawing attention to the presence of French privateers off the coast. A week later Admiral Milbanke told the Admiralty in London that "the Brazen Sloop sailed this morning under orders to cruise till further notice for the protection of the Trade and annoyance of the enemy between Beachy Head and Dunmose."
She sailed from Morwellham, a small inland Devon port, and on 25 January 1800, she captured a French vessel off the Isle of Wight that Hanson sent into Portsmouth with a 12-man prize crew. This left Brazena little short-handed.
Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines with inboard detail and figurehead, stern board outline, and longitudinal half-breadth for Brazen (captured 1798), a captured French privateer prior to being fitted as a 16-gun Ship Sloop. The plans shows the ship with her original French name of 'Invincible General Bonaparte'. Note the pronounced 'V' shaped hull, indicating that she was built for speed. Signed by Edward Tippett [Master Shipwright, Portsmouth Dockyard, 1793-1799].
Unfortunately, early in the morning on the next day, 26 January, Brazen was wrecked under high cliffs west of Newhaven. Captain Sproule and 20 Sea Fencibles rushed to the site but arrived too late to rescue any of the crew, all but one of whom died.
The sole survivor was Jeremiah Hill, a seaman from HMS Carysfort who had joined the crew of Brazen ten days before the wreck. Hill had been asleep below decks when the ship struck the cliffs on the night of 25 January. On waking he rushed to assist his crew mates, who were engaged in cutting away the main and mizzen masts to lighten the ship and avoid her beating against the rocks. Although they succeeded in cutting away the masts the force of the waves against the hull was too great and Brazen immediately heeled over onto her side. Hill, who could not swim, fell or jumped overboard and managed to grab a part of the main mast that was floating beside the hull. This kept him afloat until he was able to reach some broken timbers from one of Brazen's gun carriages. He clutched these and slowly floated to shore.
On the following morning, Brazen's hull was visible about half a mile from shore. The tide was low and observers could see large numbers of her crew still clinging to the upturned hull. As the hours passed the ship's remains gradually disappeared, until by high tide the waves were "breaking nearly fifty feet up the cliff face" and it was evident there could be no further survivors.
Sproule and his Sea Fencibles rescued what they could from Brazen, including the sternpost, two of her guns, and some timbers from the hull. As the bodies of the crew washed ashore the local citizens buried them in the churchyard of St Michael's in Newhaven. In all, they recovered some 95 bodies, out of a crew of about 105. Hanson's body, however, was never retrieved.
Friends of Captain Hanson erected a monument in the form of an obelisk in the churchyard. The text commemorates Hanson, his officers (who are named), and the crew. In 1878 his widow, Louisa, restored the monument. She lived to the age of 103 and is believed to have been the longest recipient of a naval pension on record.
The wrecking so shocked the people of Newhaven that they formed a committee to investigate how a similar disaster could be avoided. In May 1803, using funds partly raised locally and partly from Lloyd's of London, they acquired a rescue lifeboat of Henry Greathead's "Original" design. This was some twenty years before the formation of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI).
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
26 January 1805 - HM brig Epervier (16), John Impey, captured the French privateer schooner L'Elizabeth (4)
HMS Epervier was a French 16-gun Alcyon-class brig. HMS Egyptienne captured her in the Atlantic Ocean on 27 July 1803 she was taken into Royal Navyservice under her existing name. Before being broken up in 1811 she captured several prizes and was present at the Battle of San Domingo. Her crew received a clasp to the Naval General Service Medal for their participation in that battle and another for an action in December 1808. She was laid up in late 1810 and was sold in 1811.
Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with stern board decoration and name in a cartouche on the stern counter, sheer lines with inboard detail and figurehead, and longitudinal half-breadth half-breadth for the Epervier (captured 1803), a captured French Brig, possibly as fitted as an 18-gun Brig Sloop. Signed by Nicholas Diddams [Master Shipwright, Portsmouth Dockyard, 1803-1823].
French origins and capture
Epervier was built between 1801 and 1802 by Enterprise Crucy Basse-Indre (near Nantes) to a design by François Gréhan. She was launched on 30 June 1802.
She was commissioned under Lieutenant de vaisseau Emmanuel Halgan. At some point Jérôme Bonaparte boarded her. On 31 August 1802 she sailed from Nantes for Martinique and Guadeloupe.
Captain Charles Fleeming (Fleming) and Egyptienne captured Epervier off the coast of France on 27 July 1803 as she was returning to Lorient from Guadeloupe. At the time she was armed with 16 guns and had a crew of 90 men.
The British rearmed her, upgrading her battery substantially. Commander James Watson commissioned her in May 1804 and then in August Commander John Impey assumed command and sailed for Jamaica the next month.
On 15 January 1805, Epervier captured the Sally.
Then eleven days later, Epervier was in the Leeward Islands, six miles from Crab Island. For five hours she chased a strange sail before she succeeded in capturing the French privateer schooner Elizabeth from Marie Galante. Elizabeth was armed with four carriage guns and small arms. One of her crew of 34 was killed during her "obstinate Attempt to escape." She had already taken a sloop from Tortola that she had sent into St. Thomas.
On 9 May Epervier and Circe captured the Charles. Later that month, on 25 May Epervier captured the Spanish schooner Casualidad. She was taking a cargo of cocoa from Puerto Cabello to Old Spain.
Lieutenant James Higginson (acting) assumed command in January 1806. On 6 February Epervier was with the squadron under Vice Admiral, Sir John Duckworth in Superb, which took or destroyed five sail of the line in the Battle of San Domingo. Epervier was too small to take part in the battle but she did share in the prize money. In 1847 Her crew also qualified for the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "St. Domingo".
Commander Samuel J. Pechell assumed command of Epervier in March 1807 until April when John Bowker of San Josef was promoted from Lieutenant to the command. Ill health forced Bowker to give up his command to Thomas Tudor Tucker from Curieux. On 11 May, while under Tucker's command, Epervier captured the brig Mildred.
Bowker re-assumed command and on 27 October was in command of Epevier when she captured the Danish galliot Active. However Bowken then had to return home in February 1808. His successor was again Tucker.
On 12 December Epervier joined the frigate Circe, the ship-sloop Stork, the schooner Morne Fortunee, and the advice boat Express in an action against the French 16-gun schooner Cygne and two schooners off the Pearl Rock, Saint-Pierre, Martinique. The British eventually succeeded in destroying Cygne, but suffered heavy casualties in the process. In all, the British lost some 12 men killed, 31 wounded, and 26 missing (drowned or prisoners) for little gain. Epervier suffered no losses. In 1847 the Admiralty authorized the award of the Naval General Service Medal with the clasp "Off The Pearl Rock 13 Decr. 1808" to the then living survivors of the battle. Later in December Tucker transferred to Cherub.
Commanders Thomas Barclay and James P. Stewart, and possibly Lt. M. de Courcy (acting). commanded her briefly. On 4 September 1810 the Navy Office offered her for sale at Chatham Dockyard. Epervier was scrapped at Chatham in June 1811.
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
26 January 1807 – Launch of HMS Porcupine, a Royal Navy Banterer-class post ship of 24 guns
HMS Porcupine was a Royal Navy Banterer-class post ship of 24 guns, launched in 1807. She served extensively and relatively independently in the Adriatic and the Western Mediterranean during the Napoleonic Wars, with her boats performing many cutting out expeditions, one of which earned for her crew the Naval General Service Medal. She was sold for breaking up in 1816 but instead became the mercantile Windsor Castle. She was finally sold for breaking up in 1826 at Mauritius.
Model of HMS Cyane (sistership)
Porcupine was rated a 24-gun ship and the original plan was that she would mount that number of long 9-pounders on her main deck plus two 6-pounder guns on her forecastle. She also carried ten 24-pounder carronades on her quarter-deck and forecastle. By the time that Captain the Honorable Henry Duncan commissioned her in March 1807, the Admiralty had added two brass howitzers to her armament, while exchanging her 9-pounders for 32-pounder carronades. Her complement was increased by twenty to 175 officers, men and boys.
Porcupine entered service in March 1807, operating in the Mediterranean Fleet during the Napoleonic Wars under the command of Captain Henry Duncan. Detached to serve on independent command in the Adriatic Campaign, Porcupine fought numerous minor actions with shore batteries and coastal merchant ships.
On 23 September 1807, she captured the Fortuna. Then on 7 October Porcupine chased a trabaccolo into the harbour of Zupaino on Šipan (Giuppana), the largest of the Elaphiti Islands. That evening Duncan sent his boats, under the command of Lieutenant George Price, with Lieutenant Francis Smith, into the harbour where they captured and brought out the trabaccolo, which was the Venetian gunboat Safo. She was armed with a 24-pounder gun and some swivel guns, and had a crew of some 50 men, all under the command of enseigne de vaisseau Anthonio Ghega. She was well moored to the shore and was expecting an attack. Even so, once the British arrived, most of the crew jumped overboard. Safo belonged to a division of gunboats deployed to protect the coast and had been sent out from Ragusa (Dubrovnik) three days earlier. Also, before entering the harbour, the British captured a guard boat with one 4-pounder swivel gun. Despite the resistance, the Porcupine had only two men wounded.
Between 23 September and 23 November, Porcupine captured some 40 enemy vessels, most of which were carrying grain and wine between Ragusa and Catero (Kotor). Duncan received intelligence that the French were going to fortify the island of Curzola. He therefore kept Porcupine between the island and Ragusa. On 27 November Lieutenant Price in the cutter captured two small vessels sailing from Ragusa small arms fire from the shore wounded one man. Two days later Price went into the harbour of Zuliano where he destroyed several small vessels and wine in warehouses that was intended for French troops. He brought out the only vessel afloat, a trabaccolo carrying a cargo of wool. As he was leaving the port another trabaccolo approached and before Porcupine could intercept it, Price had captured it too. She was sailing from Ragusa to Curzola with military stores, including two 6½" brass mortars, two 5½" brass howitzers, four new carriages for 18-pounder guns, together with material for constructing a shore battery as well as shot and shell. Duncan was able to get the guns and most of the stores on to Porcupine before a gale came up, which forced him to destroy the two trabaccolos.
Porcupine's next exploit occurred on 7 January 1808. After a chase of eight hours, Porcupine captured the French transport Saint Nicolo. She was armed with two guns, had a crew of 16 sailors, and also had on board 31 soldiers from the 6th Regiment of the Line. She was 36 hours out of Tarento. Finding out from the prize that another vessel had left four hour earlier, Duncan set out to find her in the channel between Paxos and Corfu. He was successful in intercepting his quarry, which turned out to be Madonna del Carmine. She was armed with six guns, had a crew of 20 men, and was carrying 33 soldiers, also from the 6th Regiment. Both vessels were on their first voyage and were carrying cargoes of grain and gunpowder for the garrison at Corfu.
Next, Duncan was ordered to cruise in the Western Mediterranean off Naples and continued his successful operations against coastal shipping. Following the outbreak of the Peninsular War, Duncan was ordered to take the Duke of Orléans to Cadiz. Duncan refused and was subject to disparaging comments about his age, although he was later proven correct in his assessment. In June 1808, Robert Elliott was appointed to replace Duncan however, some months elapsed before he was able to do so.
Civitavecchia in 1795, etching by William Marlow.
On 23 June a French vessel exited Civitavechia and tried to elude Porcupine. However, Porcupine succeeded in running her ashore between two towers, each armed with two cannons. Lieutenant Price took in the boats and succeeded in destroying her, without suffering any casualties and despite heavy fire from the towers. The vessel was from Ischia and was sailing with a cargo of wine.
Two days later, Porcupine was off the island of Monte Christo when a daylight she encountered a French schooner. After an 11-hour chase, Porcupine succeeded in capturing her about four leagues south of Bastia. The French crew abandoned their vessel and escaped before Porcupine could take possession of her. She was the Nouvelle Enterprise, three weeks old, pierced for 14 guns but only mounting six. She was 24 hours out of Leghorn and was carrying bale goods for Scala Nova in Turkey.
However, on 9 July Duncan spotted an enemy merchant vessel, and her escorts, two gunboats, each armed with a 24-pounder gun, all sailing along the coast.Porcupine was becalmed off Monte Circello, Romania so Duncan sent in her boats. After rowing eight hours in the heat, the boats succeeded in driving the merchant vessel on shore and the gunboats to take shelter under the guns of two shore batteries at Port d'Anzo (Anzio). Three more French vessels arrived and succeeded in getting into the harbour. One of the vessels was a large polacca of six guns, and she anchored a little further out than the other vessels. That evening Duncan sent in the boats again to cut her out. The polacca, which had a crew of some 20-30 men, was expecting an attack and had tied her to the beach. French soldiers were on the beach, and the polacca was within close range of the batteries, a tower, and the gunboats. Still, the British succeeded in capturing her and getting her out to sea, though it took them about an hour and twenty minutes to do so. The polacca had been sailing from Hieres Bay to Naples with a cargo of salt. In the attack, the British suffered eight men wounded, including Lieutenant Price, who was severely injured in his head and leg. He received a promotion to commander for this and earlier achievements in some 30 boat actions. In 1847 the Admiralty issued the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "10 July Boat Service 1808" to all surviving claimants from the action.
On 10 July, Porcupine captured Madonna de Rosario. Eleven days later, Porcupine ran a French polacca ashore near Monte Circello. Lieutenant Smith took in the boats and destroyed the polacca, which was of about 200 tons burthen (bm) and which had been carrying a cargo of iron hoops and staves. The cutting out expedition suffered no casualties though it came under fire from a tower with two guns located no more than a pistol-shot away.
After dark on 8 August, Porcupine, still under the command of Duncan, had her cutter and jolly boat under Lieutenant Francis Smith cut out a vessel she had run ashore on the island of Pianosa. The cutting out party was successful, bringing out Concepcion, which was armed with four guns. She had been lying within 30 yards of a tower and a shore battery of six guns. She was also defended by soldiers on the beach and one of her guns which she had landed. She had been carrying bale goods from Genoa to Cyprus. The action cost Porcupine one man killed, and a lieutenant and eight men severely wounded, with three men later dying of their wounds. Smith might have received a promotion for this and prior actions but Duncan's letter to Admiral Collingwood was lost and the duplicate arrived only after Collingwood had died in March 1810.
By 14 July 1810, Elliot had assumed command of Porcupine. On that day the sailing master for Porcupine impressed an American sailor, Isaac Clark, from Jane out of Norfolk, Virginia. Elliott tore up the seaman's protection (a document attesting to his being an American citizen and so exempt from British impressment), declaring the man an Englishman. Over the next few weeks Elliott had Clark whipped three times (each whipping consisting of 24 lashes) when Clark refused to go on duty, and held in irons on bread and water. After nine weeks Clark surrendered. He served on Porcupine for two and a half years, being wounded in an engagement with a French frigate. Eventually he was transferred to Impregnable and then to a hospital due to ongoing problems with his wound. There the American consul was able to get him released and discharged, a copy of the protection having been forwarded from Salem, Massachusetts. Clark further testified that there were seven Americans aboard Porcupine, three of whom had agreed to serve.
In 1811, Porcupine was ordered to sail to Brazil and returned to Portsmouth. She was at Portsmouth on 31 July 1812 when the British authorities seized the American ships there and at Spithead on the outbreak of the War of 1812. She therefore shared, with numerous other vessels, in the subsequent prize money for these vessels: Belleville, Aeos, Janus, Ganges, and Leonidas.
Porcupine later joined the squadron off Bordeaux, assisting the British advance during the Peninsular War. Porcupine, while under command of Captain John Goode and carrying the flag of Rear-Admiral Charles Penrose, through early 1814 operated against French coastal positions and squadrons.
On the morning of 23 February 1814, she and the other vessels of Penrose's flotilla assisted the British Army in its crossing of the Ardour river, near Bayonne. In this service two of Porcupine's seamen drowned, as did some others from the flotilla when boats overturned crossing the bar on the coast.
On 2 April Captain Goode, who had ascended the Gironde above Pouillac, sent Porcupine's boats, under the orders of Lieutenant Robert Graham Dunlop, to pursue a French flotilla that was proceeding down from Blaye to Tallemont. As the British boats approached them, the French flotilla ran on shore under the cover of about 200 troops from Blaye who lined the beach. Dunlop landed with a party of seamen and marines and drove the French off. The landing party remained until the tide allowed them to take away most of the French vessels. The British captured a gun-brig, six gun-boats, one armed schooner, three chasse-marées, and an imperial barge, and burned a gun-brig, two gun-boats, and a chasse-marée. Total British casualties were two seamen missing and 14 seamen and marines wounded.
Porcupine returned to Plymouth from Bordeaux on 6 September 1814. On 4 November she sailed to the Coast of Africa and thence to the Cape of Good Hope before coming back to Sierra Leone on 29 April 1815.
Dis-osal: On 16 October 1815 Porcupine arrived at Deal and sailed for the river to be paid off. She arrived at Woolwich on 6 November and was paid off and laid up in ordinary. Although there were some plans for her to serve on the South America station, she never sailed again for the Royal Navy. Porcupine was sold at Woolwich Dockyard in April 1816 for breaking up.
Merchantman and loss
However, rather than breaking her up, J. Short & Co., purchased her, converted her to a merchantman and renamed her Windsor Castle. Her owners traded with India under a license from the British East India Company The supplemental pages for Lloyd's Register for 1816 show her master as "Hornblower", and her trade as London-India. In 1818 her master was T. Hoggart and her trade was London-Bengal.
On 1 June 1826, she put into Mauritius leaking badly. There she was surveyed, condemned as a constructive total loss, and sold for breaking up.
In January 1819, the London Gazette reported that Parliament had voted a grant to all those who had served under the command of Lord Viscount Keith in 1812, between 1812 and 1814, and in the Gironde. Porcupine was listed among the vessels that had served under Keith in 1813 and 1814. She had also served under Kieth in the Gironde.
At first, Gwen was shy and awkward and often found herself in situations she didn’t want to be in or saying things she didn’t mean to say. This usually happened around male characters, particularly Merlin and Arthur. Merlin immediately suggested that despite disliking him as a person Gwen had a crush on Arthur although this was untrue and he teased her about her attraction to "rough, tough save-the-world" types (The Dragon's Call, Lancelot).
She took a liking to Lancelot although - as with Arthur - Gwen claimed that he wasn’t her type when Merlin asked who she would choose between Arthur or Lancelot. Gwen also developed an unrequited crush on Merlin, attracted to the fact he was more or less the opposite of Arthur. However Gwen’s attempts to reveal her feelings for him frequently fell flat. For example when Merlin stated that she wouldn’t know the right man for her if he was standing right next to her Gwen looked at him and said "You're probably right." (The Dragon's Call, Lancelot)
As time went on she began to stand up for herself. It was she and Morgana who convinced Arthur to let the women of Ealdor fight when they were attacked by bandits, despite the fact that she was a servant. As a result Arthur began to acknowledge her more, seeking her out to promise her that she may keep her house and job after she was orphaned, and flirting with her after he recovered from the Questing Beast’s bite (The Moment of Truth, To Kill the King, Le Morte d'Arthur).
By series 2 her confidence and self belief had grown significantly, she now saw Arthur as someone approachable and she often offered him counsel and comfort when he needed it. She had to mother Morgana as her nightmares got worse, often staying with her through the night and worrying about her when she was away from her. She is unafraid to berate and challenge people in positions of power but she has confided in Arthur that she sometimes finds it difficult to express what was truly in her heart. She is fast thinking and quick to speak up and defend both her friends and those who were unfairly treated. Gwen is very wise and mature for her young age. She is sweet, gentle, kind, compassionate, intelligent and brave. She never gives up on her friends but is always willing to sacrifice her own happiness for the sake of others, especially Arthur. She was also very beautiful and attracted the attention of many people including Arthur, Lancelot, Gwaine and at least three of the villains, Agravaine, Helios and Hengist indeed Hengist stated that she was as beautiful as Morgana (though Hengist had never met Morgana). Despite her beauty Gwen was not a vain person.
Arthur stated that Guinevere always surprised him and said that although he thought he knew everything about her she kept finding new ways to amaze him. This could be one of the reasons why he fell in love with her. Although Gwen was usually kind and gentle she was capable of being aggressive if her friends were in danger and Arthur complimented her on her courage saying that she was a fearless hero (Lamia).
Gwen was also noted for being extremely loyal to Arthur and Camelot.
After she marries Arthur, Gwen becomes Camelot’s queen and rules alongside her husband with strength and wisdom. She adjusts to her new role as a wife and leader well, making her more confident in herself then she was before marrying Arthur. As a married couple, Arthur and Gwen’s relationship matures with them. The quick kisses and coy smiles are gone, replaced by a rock solid relationship built on loyalty and trust. Alongside Merlin, Gwen is Arthur’s most trusted confidante and he confides in her with almost everything.
Gwen is strong willed and takes on responsibility in her husband's absences. As Queen, Gwen’s voice was heard when discussing matters like impending battle. Her sharp mind and intuitive thinking was a valuable asset and she assisted Arthur and his knights many times. However Gwen also showed a considerably darker side, since she sentenced Sefa to death after finding out that Sefa had betrayed Camelot, even though Sefa had been her friend and was genuinely remorseful for her actions. It is also interesting to note that Gwen kept telling Sefa that she didn't have a choice, but in the first series she told Gaius that people always had a choice, although it was sometimes easier to think that they didn't. It is likely that Sefa's betrayal reminded her of Morgana, who had been her best friend half a decade earlier. However it was later shown that Gwen had actually never intended to execute Sefa and that it was only a plan to allow Camelot to catch her father, Ruadan who was the real threat. This showed that Gwen was a skilled actress since even Gaius, who had known her for many years, didn't realise that she was only using Sefa to get to her father. It also showed that she could be quite manipulative, ironically a trait that her former friend Morgana possessed, although unlike Morgana, Gwen only used manipulation in order to achieve results that were in the best interests of Camelot.
Although it appears to be a later contribution to the myths of King Arthur, the tale of Lancelot and Guinevere is one of the best-known stories in Arthurian legend. It has been retold countless times in many forms. T. H. White's third volume of The Once and Future King (1958) is a notable version of the myth. The I960 musical Camelot, based on T. H. White's books, focuses on the affair between Lancelot and Guinevere, as does the 1995 film First Knight, starring Richard Gere as Lancelot and Sean Connery as King Arthur. Outside traditional Arthurian legend, Lancelot was the subject of a 1950s British television series. He is also portrayed as a violent fighter by John Cleese in the 1975 comedy film Monty Python and the Holy Grail.
According to the legend, Lancelot and Guinevere are good people who struggle against their feelings of love for each other, but, in the end, are powerless to resist their attraction. Their forbidden love eventually ruins both their lives and the reign of a good and wise king. What does this story reveal about this culture's perception of the nature of love, and do we see this same attitude in modern society?