We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
(DD-243: dp. 1,190; 1. 314'5"; b. 31'8"; dr. 10'; s. 35 k.; cpl. 101; a. 4 4", 1 3", 12 21" tt.; cl. Clemson)
The first Sands (DD-243) was laid down on 22 March 1919 by the New York Shipbuilding Co., Camden, N.J.; launched on 28 October 1919; sponsored by Miss Jane McCue Sands; and commissioned on 10 November 1920, Ens. William D. Leahy in temporary command.
Following commissioning, Sands remained at Philadelphia to fit out for European duty. On 22 November, Lt. M. L. Sperry, Jr., relieved Ens. Leahy as temporary commanding officer, and, on 13 December, Comdr. Robert L. Ghormley assumed command. The next day the destroyer departed from Philadelphia; steamed to Melville, R.I., for torpedo outfit; then proceeded to New York. On 3 January 1921, she sailed for Europe. She arrived at Brest on the 16th and, for the next seven months, conducted runs between French and British ports. In mid-August, she steamed for the Baltic; called at various ports on that sea, despite the still present danger of mines, and returned to Cherbourg on 27 September. Three weeks later, she cleared the French coast and headed for the eastern Mediterranean-Black Sea area. There, fighting between Greeks and Turks in coastal Asia Minor, between Turks and Armenians on the Anatolian plateau, and between Red and White forces in Russia had created a cauldron of hatred, disease, poverty, and famine.
Assigned to provide dispatch service to support American Relief Committee efforts, and to protect American nationals and interests, Sands arrived at Alliedoccupied Constantinople on 11 November. Nine days later, she fueled at the Standard Oil docks at Selvi Bournu, then commenced her first cruise. Into late December, she steamed off Samsoun and Trebizond, observing as Greeks were deported from those areas. After returning briefly to Constantinople, she steamed to Alexand retta, whence she continued on to troubled Cilicia. There she called at Mersin, site of an American mission and relief distribution center, and remained through most of January 1922. On 3 February, she was back at Constantinople, and, on the 8th, she got underway for Novorossisk. From the 8th to the 19th she supported relief work in that city, then proceeded to Samsoun where, with one interruption to retrieve a drifting barge near Inebole, she remained until 8 March. Two days later, she returned to Constantinople; and, on the 18th, she shifted to Selvi Bournu to assist in firefighting efforts in the oil storage area. With the fires under control, she put back into Constantinople and, on the 22d, got underway to again call at Mersin. By 7 April, she had retransited the Dardanelles and the Sea of Marmora. On 8 May, she passed through the Bosporus. From the 9th to the 22d, she w as at Odessa, whence she shifted to Theodosia and then continued to Novorossisk. In early June, she was at Trebizond; and, on the 4th, she arrived at Samsoun where, for several days, she steamed off the harbor entrance as Greek and Turkish forces exchanged hostile fire.
Sands returned to Constantinople on 9 July and soon afterward sailed for Gibraltar and the United States. From August into November, she underwent overhaul at Philadelphia. By late December, she had joined the Scouting Fleet at New York; and, on 3 January 1923 she departed from that city for winter maneuvers in the Caribbean. In February, she participated in Fleet Problem I, an exercise designed to test the defenses of the Panama Canal. During March and April, she conducted operations in the Greater Antilles and, in May she moved back to the east coast. In Juiy, after overhaul, she headed north to the New England coast. In the autumn, she commenced operations off the midAtlantic seaboard, and, in January 1924, she again sailed south for winter maneuvers.
Through the decade and into the 1930's, Sands maintained a similar schedule. On 10 November 1930, however, after completing exercises off southern New England, she proceeded to Philadelphia, where she began inactivation. She was decommissioned on 13 February 1931 aml was berthed at League Island until ordered activated in the summer of 1932.
Recommissioned on 21 July, the destroyer moved toNorfolk, and, in August, she sailed for the west coast. On 8 September, she arrived at her new base, San Diego. and commenced operations off the southern California coast. With the new year, 1933, she steamed to Hawaii for fleet exercises, and, in mid-February, returned to California. During the spring, she operated off the coast of Washington, and, in July, she resumed exercises out of San Diego. Three months later, she joined Rotating Destroyer Squadron 20 and remained in reserve through the winter. Activated in April 1934, she joined Destroyer Division 9 and got underway for the Caribbean and fleet exercises. By mid-November she was back in southern California, where she remained, with one interruption—Fleet Problem XVI in the North Pacific ( May 1935)—until April 1936. She then returned to the east coast, participated in exercises in the Caribbean and off New England; and steamed back to San Diego in October. For the next two years, she operated primarily in the southern California area, with exercises in the Hawaiian Islands during the spring and autumn of 1937 and the spring of 1938. On her return in April 1938, she operated locally into the summer, then prepared for inactivation.
Sands was decommissioned at San Diego on 15 September t938. Within a year, however, war broke out in Europe and the destroyer was ordered activated for Neutrality Patrol duty.
Recommissioned on 26 September 1939, Sands departed the west coast on 13 November and, a little over a month later, took up patrol duty in the Caribbean. She remained there into the spring of 1940, then moved north for patrol and escort duty off the eastern seaboard from the Virginia Capes to the Maritime Provinces. Before the end of the year, she returned to the Pacific and resumed operations off California.
With the entry of the United States into World War II, Sands commenced coastal escort work, which continued into the spring of 1942. Then, as the Japanese moved into the western Aleutians, she shifted to Alaska and, through the summer, escorted convoys and conducted patrols from the mainland to ports in the eastern Aleutians. By fall, the Allies were taking the offensive, and Sands was needed elsewhere for a different mission. On 28 October, she sailed south. Two days later, she was redesignated APD-13; and, on 5 November, she arrived at San Francisco for conversion to a high speed transport.
Sands departed from San Francisco on 21 December. Steaming west, she reached Pearl Harbor at the end of the year; conducted exercises into January 1943, and on the 8th, resumed her Pacific crossing. On the 22d she arrived at Espiritu Santo and, as a transport an] as an escort, began moving reinforcements and supplies into the Guadalcanal-Tulagi area. On the 29th she was detached from duties at Tulagi and ordered to accompany the tug, Navajo (AT 64), toward Rennell Island to assist Chicago (CA-29). Rendezvousing the next morning, the tug took the damaged cruiser in tow and Sands joined Chicago's escort of five destroyers in a circular screen. The eight ships then began making their way to Tulagi. At 1620, the formation was attacked by Japanese torpedo planes. Navajo began evasive maneuvers. Antiaircraft guns on Sands and the DD's blazed at the intruders. But Chicago took another torpedo and, 20 minutes later, sank.
Sands, with nine wounded by the explosion of a 20 millimeter shell, picked up over 300 survivors and steamed for Espiritu Santo. Arriving on 1 February she conducted amphibious exercises from the 4th to the 10th; completed another escort run to Guadalcanal and back by the 14th; and, on the 15th, with more marines embarked, steamed back to the Solomons. Five days later, she departed Tulagi; crossed over to Koli Point and, on the 21st, moved on to the Russells. That night she landed her assault troops unopposed; then returned to Tulagi, whence she made two more transport runs to the assault area before the 26th.
After the occupation of the Russells, Sands continued to carry troops and supplies and to escort convoys in the New Caledonia-New Hebrides-Solomons area. With spring, she was transferred to the 7th Amphibious Force. On 14 May she departed the New Hebrides, and, on the 20th, she arrived at Townsville Australia, with an LST convoy.
Through the summer, she performed escort and patrol missions along the Queensland coast and completed numerous runs to move Allied forces up to and along the northern coast of the Papuan peninsula. By September, the forces were ready to move against Japanese positions on the Huon Peninsula and contest the enemy's control of Vitiaz and Dampier Straits.
On 2 September, Sands embarked units of the 9th Australian Division, veterans of the North African desert and, two days later, landed them east of Lae. On the 5th, she retired, returning a few days later to shell the Japanese garrison at Lae as Allied forces closed that village from the jungle and from mangrove swamps. At mid-month, she resumed transport and escort duties along the coast; and, on the 22d, she landed troops just north of Finschbafen.
Reinforcement-escort runs and amphibious exercises along the coast, from Port Moresby to the Huon Peninsula and between Papua and offshore islands, occupied October and November. In early December, at Goodenough Island, she loaded units of the 112th Cavalry Rcgiment for the assault on New Britain. On the 15th she offloaded the troops into rubber landing boats which were to take them onto the Amalut Peninsula. The Japanese, however, opened fire before the boats reached the beach. Covering units, not knowing if the troops had landed, held their fire for fear of hitting the cavalrymen. Twelve of the 15 boats, riddled by Japanese fire, sank. Most surviving troops swam seaward. Sands and the escorting destroyer opened fire silencing the enemy guns. The search for survivors began, and all but 16 were rescued.
Eleven days later, Sands returned to New Britain for another assault landing. On the 26th, she landed marines on Cape Gloucester, provided gunfire support as they moved off the beaches, then retired to stage for her next target, Saidor.
On 1 January 1944, the APD again departed Goodenough Island with assault troops embarked. A unit of Task Group 76.1, she transited Vitiaz Strait that night and, at 0735 on the 2d, landed the troops on the beach at Saidor, 115 miles west of Finschhafen. By 0800, she was out of the transport area. In the afternoon, she returned to Buna Roads and, until mid-month, made runs between there and Capes Cretin and Sudest.
On the 18th, Sands arrived at Sydney for a brief respite. On the 28th, she got underway to return to New Guinea with cargo and personnel for Milne Bay, Buna and Cape Sudest. From 6 to 24 February, she completed another run to Sydney, then, on the 27th loaded troops at Cape Sudest for transport to the assault beaches at Los Negros Island, Admiralties. Sailing on the 29th she crossed the Bismarck Sea arrived off the assault area shortly after 0730 the next day; dispatched her loaded LCP(R)'s to the departure line by 0742; then, as the first waves reached the shore, commenced gunfire support operations. At 0835 Sands' boats hit the beach with the 3d wave. The intense crossfire which had caught earlier waves continued as they approached. Poor organization on the beach slowed offloading and assisted the accuracy of the Japanese defenders. Sands suffered two casualties, one killed, one seriously injured, from her boat crews and lost her no. 1 boat.
In mid-afternoon, the APD departed the Los NegrosManus area. Returning to Cape Sudest, she loaded much-needed reinforcements on 3 March and, the next day, disembarked them on the contested island and took on casualties. On the 5th, she was back at Cape Sudest, whence she resumed escort duty along the coast.
In early April,Sands trained army units in amphibious exercises. On the 18th, she embarked units of the 162d Infantry and got underway for Humboldt Bay. Steaming with TG 77.2, the Central Attack Group for the Hollandia operation, she arrived in the transport area early on the morning of the 22d. At 0600 her boats were lowered and loaded. Five minutes later, they were en route to the departure line. At 0735, they returned and were hoisted on board. The APD then took up gunfire support duties.
On the 24th, Sands returned to Cape Cretin, thence proceeded to Cape Sudest for availability. In May, she resumed escort and transport runs but, at mid-month interrupted them to return to California.
After an overhaul at Alameda, Sands carried passengers to Pearl Harbor; embarked 126 men of the 81st Division Reconnaissance Company there, and arrived in the Solomons on 24 August to rehearse the Palau operation. Two weeks later, she steamed northwest, arriving in the transport area off Anguar Island on the 15th. Acting as reserve for the Peleliu Island assault, she remained off Anguar during the initial landings on the former island. At mid morning, she shifted to Peleliu to support the forces ashore. On the 17th, she returned to Anguar and, on the 18th, landed the reconnaissance company on Red Beach. On the 19th, she went alongside Harris; embarked the 323d Reconnaissance Company and then, with Rathburne proceeded to Ulithi. There until the 25th, she 1ande] her troops without opposition, then got underway to return to Hollandia. Arriving on the 28th, she shifted to Manus on the 29th; equipped her boats with minesweeping gear; embarked minesweeping personnel and, on 10 October, steamed for Leyte with units of Mine Squadron 2.
Despite poor weather and two appendectomies which were performed aboard ship, Sands arrived in the approaches to Leyte Gulf on the 17th. On the 18th, she closed Suluan Island; took off reconnaissance troops landed previously by Crosby, and transferred them to that ship. On the 19th, she moved up to the assault area and lowered her LCP(R)'s to conduct shallow water minesweeping operations. From 1155 to 1410 she covered her boats as they swept the approaches to Red and White beaches near Tacloban. Straddled but not hit, by Japanese batteries, the boats completed their mission and returned to the APD. Sands then shifted to the Dulag beaches, where her boats conducted further shallow water sweeps.
During the night, Sands patrolled in Leyte Gulf. In the morning, she returned to the Tacloban area to provide gunfire support there. In the afternoon, she shifted to the Dulag area for the same purpose; and, on the 21st, she got underway to return to New Guinea.
During November, the APD conducted a resupply and reinforcement run to Leyte and back, then prepared for the invasion of Luzon. On 27 December, she departed Hollandia for the Palaus and Leyte. On 2 January 1945, she cleared San Pedro Bay. On the 4th Japanese aerial resistance began. The next day, her task group, 77.2, steamed up the Luzon coast. Landbased Japanese aircraft again attacked. On the 6th the force arrived off Lingayen Gulf and despite kamikaze accuracy, the ships entered the gulf and took up their stations. Sands, with other APD's, bombarded Santiago Island. On the 7th, she covered the YMS's as they conducted sweeps, then closed Orange and Green beaches to cover underwater demolition teams as they removed obstacles from the landing area. On the 8th, she moved to the transport area where she remained on patrol, until the 13th. She then got underway for Leyte and Ulithi.
The APD arrived in the Western Carolines on the 24th and remained through February. On 1 March, she joined a convoy for Iwo Jima; arrived on the 3d; patrolled through the 5th; and sailed for Saipan on the 6th, escorting retiring transports. From the Marianas she sailed to the Solomons, New Caledonia, and the Admiralties, whence she returned to Ulithi to escort reinforcements to the Ryukyus. By mid-June, she had completed three runs to the Okinawa area and had begun her last Pacific crossing. On the 30th, she arrived at Pearl Harbor; and, on 11 July, she returned to San Diego.
Sands remained on the west coast through the end of hostilities. On 29 August, she got underway for Philadelphia, where she was decommissioned on 10 October 1945. Struck from the Navy list on 1 November, she was sold for scrapping to the Boston Metals Co., Baltimore, Md., the following spring.
Sands (APD-13) earned nine battle stars for World War II service.
USS Sands (DD-243)
The first USS Sands (DD-243/APD-13) was a Clemson-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War II. She was the first ship named for Benjamin F. Sands and his son, James H. Sands.
Sands was laid down on 22 March 1919 by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey launched on 28 October 1919 sponsored by Miss Jane McCue Sands and commissioned on 10 November 1920, Ensign William D. Leahy in temporary command.
USS Sands DD-243 (1920-1945)
Request a FREE packet and get the best information and resources on mesothelioma delivered to you overnight.
All Content is copyright 2021 | About Us
Attorney Advertising. This website is sponsored by Seeger Weiss LLP with offices in New York, New Jersey and Philadelphia. The principal address and telephone number of the firm are 55 Challenger Road, Ridgefield Park, New Jersey, (973) 639-9100. The information on this website is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended to provide specific legal or medical advice. Do not stop taking a prescribed medication without first consulting with your doctor. Discontinuing a prescribed medication without your doctor’s advice can result in injury or death. Prior results of Seeger Weiss LLP or its attorneys do not guarantee or predict a similar outcome with respect to any future matter. If you are a legal copyright holder and believe a page on this site falls outside the boundaries of "Fair Use" and infringes on your client’s copyright, we can be contacted regarding copyright matters at [email protected]
Uss Sands Dd 243 Apd 13 - Hoodie
At our company, every product is printed just for you according to your specifications of design, size, and color. We don’t hold any stock, which means your items are manufactured only after you place your order.
All orders will have a manufacturing time frame of 5-7 business days (excluding weekends and holidays) prior to the order being shipped, regardless of the shipping method selected. For orders that choose Ground, 2- Day, Overnight shipping service will be put into production within 12 hours. Outside of this time, you will not be able to change order information.
You will receive your order once sent within 1-8 business days depending on the shipping service you have chosen
For international orders please allow 6-8 weeks for delivery. The final delivery is usually via your local postal service.
To double-check ETA’s, check the estimated delivery date on your receipt or reach out to our team at [email protected]
How much does shipping cost?
Here’s how we break down of our shipping prices:
- With Shirt and Mug, Canvas:
- $4.99 for order price under 49.99$
- $7.99 for order price over 50$ and under 100$
- $14.99 for order price over 100$ and under 200$
- $34.99 for order price over 200$ and under 290$
- $49.99 for order price over 290$
- $16.99 for order price under 48.99$
- $21.99 for order price over 49$ and under 69$
- $26.99 for order price over 69.01$ and under 99 $
- $34.99 for order price over 99.01 $ and under 149 $
- $44.99 for order price over 149$ and under 290$
- $59.99 for order price over 290$
2- Day : Packages will be shipped out within 2 business days after completing production. Note: Cannot ship to post office box (PO Box).
Are four stackers cool? USS Sands(DD-243) probably early WW2. [1147x600]
Yeah I always liked flush-decked destroyers. But there is this quote from The Caine Mutiny, in which you can hear Herman Wouk's pain from his service on an old four-piper in WWII:
"Between you and me, these damn buckets ought to be melted down to razor blades. They roll and pitch too damn much, the power plant is shot, all the machinery is obsolete, and the men are crowded in like animals."
"Our first glimpse of the Palmer is one of unadulterated shock. It's an old World War I destroyer and it looks terrible……a decrepit old warrior of yesteryear that appears to be on its last legs."
" [Roosevelt] gave Britain fifty World War I destroyers, the same type of ship [as USS Palmer] on which I was to later serve. The thought often occurred to those of us on the Palmer, that he should have given all of them away."
Hell yeah, they were great-looking ships in my opinion. Unsung heroes compared to their newer, sexier cousins that had decadent luxuries such as powered, weatherproof dual-purpose gun mounts with calibers greater than 4".
A quote about them I liked:
“With the passing of Teapa,” wrote Commander John D. Alden in his excellent 1965 book Flush Decks & Four Pipes, “the saga of the flush deckers apparently came to an end, but perhaps even now one survives as a barge or hulk in some backwater. But deep in their hearts, old destroyermen know that somewhere in the wide reaches of the oceans, one of their number still carries on, and when the truth becomes known, she will be seen in full fighting regalia escorting the Flying Dutchman into port when he completes his endless seafaring rounds on Judgment Day.”
French and Indian War Leads to Reshuffled American Map
Map of the British dominions in North America according to the Treaty of Paris in 1763.
Stock Montage/Getty Images
The proclamation was a watershed for Native American rights. But the tribal members who commemorated the proclamation with wampum belts and other offerings had no idea that the agreement had set the stage not just for the American Revolution, but the eventual loss of most of their lands.
Native Americans had been losing land slowly but surely throughout British colonial rule. h treaty expanded the area for colonial occupation and reduced the land base of different tribes,” notes geographer Charlie Grymes. With growing territory came a growing British desire to live and farm along the colonial frontier.
But the British had a rival with the same goal: the French, who made claims in the Ohio River Valley beginning in the 1750s. The valley was a fertile area whose waterway held major trade promise, and the British wanted to claim it for the crown. Armed conflict began in 1754, and in 1756, Britain formally declared war on France. After a rocky start, Britain prevailed, and in February 1763 the war ended with the Treaty of Paris.
The treaty reshuffled the American map. Britain ceded Canada, and France gave Britain all of the territory east of the Mississippi River. But what seemed like an opportunity for British expansion was soon tainted by British colonists’ appetite for settlement and Native Americans’ fear of incursion. British residents of the frontier had seen their homes destroyed during the French and Indian War. Now they felt threatened by Native Americans who shared their feeling of intimidation and oppression.
Soon, tensions between both groups boiled over at the borderlands. Pontiac, an Ottawa chief, had aligned himself with the French during the war. Now, he oversaw a set of organized rebellions against British colonists, including an unsuccessful siege against Fort Detroit in what is now Michigan. His leadership fueled Pontiac’s War, a sporadic conflict that pitted Native Americans against British colonists.
During the conflict, a loose tribal alliance attacked British settlements in Ohio, Pennsylvania and the Great Lakes area, surprising the British military and causing panic among civilians.
The fighting was brutal, writes historian David Dixon. “There can be little doubt that the English and their Indian adversaries both indulged in unspeakable forms of terror and violence,” he writes—including torture, scalping and hostage taking on both sides. British officers even made a brief attempt at biological warfare at Fort Pitt, where at least one British diplomat gave smallpox-infected blankets and handkerchiefs to representatives of the Delaware tribe.
Switch to list view
Change how you view your teams.
Select More options next to Join or create team.
Under Layout, choose List.
Note: If you change your mind about Grid view, select More options at the bottom of your teams list > Switch view. Under Layout, choose Grid.
Reggae star Bob Marley dies at 36
In what would prove to be the next to the last concert of his tragically short life, Bob Marley shared the bill at Madison Square Garden with the hugely popular American funk band The Commodores. With no costumes, no choreography and no set design to speak of, “The reggae star had the majority of his listeners on their feet and in the palm of his hand,” according to New York Times critic Robert Palmer. ter this show of strength, and Mr. Marley’s intense singing and electric stage presence, the Commodores were a letdown.” Only days after his triumphant shows in New York City, Bob Marley collapsed while jogging in Central Park and later received a grim diagnosis: a cancerous growth on an old soccer injury on his big toe had metastasized and spread to Marley’s brain, liver and lungs. Less than eight months later, on May 11, 1981, Bob Marley, the soul and international face of reggae music, died in a Miami, Florida, hospital. He was only 36 years old.
Nesta Robert Marley was born on February 6, 1945, in rural St. Ann Parish, Jamaica, the son of a middle-aged white Jamaican Marine officer and an 18-year-old Black Jamaican girl. At the age of nine, Marley moved to Trench Town, a tough West Kingston ghetto where he would meet and befriend Neville 𠇋unny” Livingston (later Bunny Wailer) and Peter McIntosh (later Peter Tosh) and drop out of school at age 14 to make music. Jamaica at the time was entering a period of incredible musical creativity. As transistor radios became available on an island then served only by a staid, BBC-style national radio station, the music of America suddenly became accessible via stateside radio stations. From a mix of New Orleans-style rhythm and blues and indigenous, African-influenced musical traditions arose first ska, then rock steady—precursor styles to reggae, which did not take shape as a recognizable style of its own until the late 1960s.
Bob Marley, Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer performed together as The Wailers throughout this period, coming into their own as a group just as reggae became the dominant sound in Jamaica. Thanks to the international reach of Island Records, the Wailers came to the world’s attention in the early 1970s via their albums Catch a Fire (1972) and Burnin’ (1973). Eric Clapton spread the group’s name even wider by recording a pop-friendly version of “I Shot The Sheriff” from the latter album. With the departure of Tosh and Wailer in 1974, Marley took center stage in the group, and by the late 70s he had turned out a string of albums—Exodus (1977), featuring “Jamming,” “Waiting In Vain” and “One Love/People Get Ready” Kaya (1978), featuring “Is This Love” and “Sun Is Shining” and Uprising (1980), featuring 𠇌ould You Be Loved” and “Redemption Song.”
While none of the aforementioned songs was anything approaching a hit in the United States during Bob Marley’s lifetime, they constitute a legacy that has only increased his fame in the years since his death on this day in 1981.
A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End
This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.
- Publisher: Cambridge University Press
- Online publication date: June 2012
- Print publication year: 2006
- Online ISBN: 9780511803741
- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803741
- Subjects: Area Studies, Twentieth Century European History, History, European Studies, Russian and East European History
An examination of political, social and cultural developments in the Soviet Union. The book identifies the social tensions and political inconsistencies that spurred radical change in the government of Russia, from the turn of the century to the revolution of 1917. Kenez envisions that revolution as a crisis of authority that posed the question, 'Who shall govern Russia?' This question was resolved with the creation of the Soviet Union. Kenez traces the development of the Soviet Union from the Revolution, through the 1920s, the years of the New Economic Policies and into the Stalinist order. He shows how post-Stalin Soviet leaders struggled to find ways to rule the country without using Stalin's methods but also without openly repudiating the past, and to negotiate a peaceful but antipathetic coexistence with the capitalist West. In this second edition, he also examines the post-Soviet period, tracing Russia's development up to the time of publication.
'Few historians are as well qualified to write such a volume as Professor Kenez. A solid and conscientious scholar, author of several books on the early l920s and on the Soviet cinema, Kenez's work has always inspired confidence and the new book is no exception. It is lucid, amply documented, well organized, and occasionally brightened by flashes of quiet humour … Above all, the book is thumpingly sensible.'
Source: The Times Literary Supplement
'Kenez has written an excellent book, and it is deserving of special attention by all who are interested in the rise and fall of the Soviet Union.'
D-Day Training: Preparing for the Normandy Invasion
Allied D-Day training and preparing was a vast endeavor, stretching from North America to southern England. Firing ranges were at a premium, as space was needed for practice-firing weapons from rifles to naval gunnery and antiaircraft guns. However, the emphasis was upon amphibious operations and landing, and some facilities had been in use long before June 1944.
Perhaps the most notable facility used by the British armed forces was the Combined Operations Training Center at Inverary, on the west coast of Scotland. It was established in 1940, originally to prepare for commando operations, but expanded when British amphibious doctrine shifted from large-scale raids to actual invasion. Later bases in southern England included Culbin Sands and Burghead Bay, in the area where the invasion fleet would assemble.
Here is how Eric Broadhead describes a typical training day in mid-April 1944, when Durham Light Infantry moved to a tented camp about file miles from Southampton:
Life on the whole was pleasant. It was summertime at its best. Our evenings found us in Southampton, where the servicemen outnumbered the civilians by seven to one. The walk from Southampton back to camp was a pleasant one, and often I and my mates would stroll back talking of home, parents, wives and sweethearts and of the day that must surely dawn soon, the day when we sailed for a destination that only a few men knew. We discussed our ideas of where it would be, but the question was when? Sometimes the question got on our nerves. We all had our own theories as to when it would be. Around May 10th, a drastic move took place. The camps were sealed, our training was over. The days that followed were strange to be sure. Barbed wire skirted the camp area, armed guards too. We received no mail, but were still allowed to write home, subject to strict censorship.
The U.S. Army set up at least eight training centers prior to D-Day, most notably at Woolacombe Beach, Devonshire (See Assault Training Center). Because of its topographical similarity to Normandy, the Slapton Sands region of the south coast was selected for amphibious rehearsals, leading to the disastrous Operation Tiger in April.
This article is part of our larger selection of posts about the Normandy Invasion. To learn more, click here for our comprehensive guide to D-Day.
You can also buy the book by clicking on the buttons to the left.