Has an individual ever purchased an entire country?

Has an individual ever purchased an entire country?


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At any point in history, has an individual ever purchased an entire country - using their private wealth?

Specifically, I'm looking for any examples of somebody who has purchased an entire already-existing country - not simply buying significant amounts of land, and then founding a new country from it.

Ideally, the person who purchased the country, would then be in charge of its governance. However if no such situation exists, examples of things that come close would be welcome too (such as owning all land and infrastructure - but not directly governing the country).

Has such an event ever happened in history?


In 1699, Johann Adam Andreas von Liechtenstein bought Schellenberg and in 1712 the county of Vaduz. The county was operating under feudal principles, thus perhaps might not be considered a country in the modern meaning, but comes close. Schellenberg and Vaduz have been united in 1718, got the status of Fürstentum and were renamed to Liechtenstein, the name it holds since then.


In certain sense yes. Didius Julianus purchased the position of the Roman emperor in 193. This position was actually auctioned by Praetorian guards to the highest bidder, the Wikipedia article on Didius Julianus contains a short account. The American movie "Fall of the Roman empire" (1964) shows a fictionalized version of these events.

Of course one can argue in what sense a Roman emperor "owned" the country. At that time the emperors were absolute rulers, but not to such extent as Chinese or Moscow emperors.

Remark. The title of the movie is misleading: the Empire was still very far from its fall.


In 1846, The East India Company annexed the Kashmir Valley, Jammu, Ladakh, and Gilgit-Baltistan from the Sikhs, and then transferred it to Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu in return for an indemnity payment of 7.5 Million (Nanakshahee) Rupees, making it an interesting incident in the history when a private company (annexed and) sold a state. [1][2]


In 933 King Rudolph II of Burgundy and King Hugh of Burgundy both wished to rule Italy. So they made a deal. Hugh traded his kingdom of Burgundy to King Rudolph of the other kingdom of Burgundy, thus forming the united kingdom of Burgundy or Arles, in return for Hugh getting the right to rule Italy undisturbed (by Rudolph at least).

So this is an example of a a king trading a kingdom to another king in return for the second king giving up his claim to a third kingdom.

In the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of Sicily were granted to Charles VI, Emperor of the Romans and king of a bunch of kingdoms, and the other kingdom of Sicily was granted to Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, etc., and titular king of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia. In 1720 Victor Amadeus II was forced to exchange kingdoms with Emperor Charles VI, who thus had both kingdoms of Sicily, while Victor Amadeus received the kingdom of Sardinia.

So this is an example of monarchs trading kingdoms.

In 1204 the misdirected Fourth Crusade captured Constantinople, capital of the eastern Roman or "Byzantine" empire. The Crusaders selected a dark horse candidate, Count Baldwin of Flanders to be the new Emperor. Margrave Boniface I of Montferrat, the leader of the crusade, was consoled with the title of vassal King of Thessalonika. A number of rump "Byzantine" states were founded, and the three most powerful such states claimed to be the true Roman empires at various times. And two other allegedly Roman rulers got involved in the struggles for power, the Bulgarian Tsar of the Bulgarians and the Romans and the Turkish Sultan of Rum (Rome).

Thessalonika was gradually conquered by Epirus, the city being captured in 1224. Boniface's son King Demetrius died childless in 1230, and left his claim to the Kingdom to Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II in his will in 1230. Emperor Frederick granted the claim to Thessalonika to Margrave Boniface II of Montferrat, half nephew of King Demetrius, in 1239.

Constantinople was recaptured by the "Byzantines" in 1261 and Emperor Baldwin II fled. Various popes tried to arrange a new crusade to put the Latin Emperor back on the throne, and "Byzantine" Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos tried to arrange a marriage of his heir Michael IX with Empress Catherine I, heiress of the Latin Empire, in order to avoid the danger of a crusade. He failed, but did marry as his second wife Yolanda of Montferrat in 1284, who brought her family's claim to the Kingdom of Thessalonika with her, and a son of theirs became Margrave of Montferrat when Yolanda's brother died in 1305.

Latin Emperor Baldwin II lost his capital and the lands he directly ruled in 1261, and his remaining vassals apparently didn't pay him much tribute, so he was short of money. And an attempt to reconquer his lands would be very expensive.

So in 1266 Baldwin II sold the right to the Kingdom of Thessalonika to Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, even though Margrave William VII of Montferrat already had the rights to the Kingdom of Thessalonika.

Then in 1274 Emperor Philip of Courtenay, son of Baldwin II, granted the rights to the Kingdom of Thessalonika to Philip of Sicily (1255/56-1277), even though Margrave William VII of Montferrat and Duke Robert II of Burgundy already had claims to the Kingdom of Thessalonika.

Philip of Sicily's claim died with him in 1277, William VII's was given to his daughter Yolanda when she married Emperor Andronikos II in 1284, And Duke Odo IV of Burgundy sold his rights to the Kingdom of Thessalonika and the Principality of Achaea to Count Louis of Cleremont, first Duke of Bourbon, in 1320.

And I suppose that it is possible that rights to the Kingdom of Thessalonika were sold to someone else at some time.

IN 1453 the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople and the last "Byzantine" Emperor Constantine XI was killed fighting. In 1460 the Ottomans conquered the Morea and Constantine XI's brother Despot Demetrius Palaiologos (c. 1407-1470) submitted to the Sultan. His only known child Helena entered the harem of the Sultan and died in 1469, and Demetrios became a monk before he died.

Despot Thomas Palaiologos (1409-1465), the youngest brother of Constantine XI, fled to western Europe, and was recognized as the claimant to the "Byzantine" Empire. Thomas's younger son Manuel Palaiologos (1455-1512) lived in Italy for much of his life and then traveled to Constantinople to the court of the Sultan. He sold his rights to the empire to the sultan in return for an estate and a pension. He had a son John who died young, and a son Andrew who converted to Islam.

Andreas Palaiologos (1453-1502), the older son of titular emperor Thomas, succeeded as titular emperor. He sold his rights to the "Byzantine" empire twice, to King Charles VII of France in 1494 and again to King Ferdinand and queen Isabella of Aragon and Castile.


This might not exactly fit the question: Belgian Congo was a personal colony of the Belgian King Leopold II..

From Wikipedia:

After numerous unsuccessful schemes to acquire colonies in Africa and Asia, in 1876 Leopold organized a private holding company disguised as an international scientific and philanthropic association, which he called the International African Society, or the International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of the Congo. In 1878, under the auspices of the holding company, he hired explorer Henry Stanley to explore and establish a colony in the Congo region. Much diplomatic maneuvering among European nations resulted in the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 regarding African affairs, at which representatives of 14 European countries and the United States recognized Leopold as sovereign of most of the area to which he and Stanley had laid claim. On 5 February 1885, the Congo Free State, an area 76 times larger than Belgium, was established under Leopold II's personal rule and private army, the Force Publique.


From http://kingdomofbiffeche.net/history.htm :

Born in the United States, Edward Schafer (… ) an active business man (… ) was asked by the Roman Catholic Cardinal of St. Louis to form a committee to aid the needy people of Biffeche.
(… ) Edward Schafer put together a group that raised money and sent aid to the people of Biffeche.

A group of Roman Catholic people of the Sérér-Mont-Roland tribe (… ) transported to the semi-desert of Biffeche (… ). They come from the oldest ethnic group in Sénégal, the Sérér (… )

In 1963 they could not settle upon a new King at the time; instead of choosing one of their own people they asked their priest (… ). He advised them to choose the person who had helped them the most during their plight. That person was (… ) Edward Charles Schafer.

The United States State Department presented no objections to the new arrangement. The 100th King of Biffeche was enthroned as Edward I by the Grace of God, by the Will of Allah, Protected by the Great White Leopard.

While Mr Schafer's actions did not seem motivated by the obtention of regalian power, and even though Biffeche might not be recognized by all as a separate country ; in the end Edward became King as a consequence of the money he collected and spent for the people of the Land.


Cecil John Rhodes (1857-1902) wanted to purchase lots of countries he considered 'waste-land' for his Cape to Cairo route in Africa. He even had two of his 'purchases' -- his British South Africa Company (BSAC) was equivalent to anything Leopold of the Belgians attempted -- Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) named after him. The BSAC ruled both colonial Zimbabwe and colonial Zambia until circa 1924, and continued to influence economic policy in both long after WW2. Rhodes's 'successful' legacy often obscured the basic commercial motives behind his purchases, as did his rather vacuous none sense about 'the British being the finest people… so the more of the world they ruled the better'.


10 Things You Should Know About Prohibition

In the early 19th century, religious revivalists and early teetotaler groups like the American Temperance Society campaigned relentlessly against what they viewed as a nationwide scourge of drunkenness. The activists scored a major victory in 1851, when the Maine legislature passed a statewide prohibition on selling alcohol. A dozen other states soon instituted “Maine Laws” of their own, only to repeal them a few years later after widespread opposition and riots from grog-loving citizens (Kansas later instituted a separate ban in 1881). Calls for a 𠇍ry” America continued into the 1910s, when deep-pocketed and politically connected groups such as the Anti-Saloon League and the Women’s Christian Temperance Union gained widespread support for anti-alcohol legislation on Capitol Hill.


Benjamin Franklin: America's First Insurer

Property insurance was certainly not an unknown concept in the 18th century: England's famed insurer Lloyd's of London had been born in 1688.   But it took until the mid-1700s for the American colonies to become prosperous and sophisticated enough to adopt the concept. That happened in Philadelphia, at the time one of the largest cities in North America, with 15,000 residents.

The city was haunted by the fear of fires. Much like London in the 1600s, houses at the time were made almost entirely out of wood. Worse yet, they were built close together. This was originally done for security reasons, but as cities grew, developers built homes very close to each other for the same reasons they do today—to fit as many as possible on their plots of land. Although much of Philadelphia was built with wide streets and brick or stone structures, conflagrations were still a concern.

In 1752, Benjamin Franklin and several other leading citizens founded The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire, modeled after a London firm. The first fire insurance company in America, it was structured as a mutual insurance company, and Franklin advertised it in The Pennsylvania Gazette (which he owned). Like modern insurers, the company sent inspectors to evaluate properties whose owners were applying for coverage and rejected those that did not meet its standards rates were based on a risk assessment of the property. The Contributionship issued seven-year policies, and claims were paid out of a capital reserve fund.  


How an Enslaved African Man in Boston Helped Save Generations from Smallpox

The news was terrifying to colonists in Massachusetts: Smallpox had made it to Boston and was spreading rapidly. The first victims, passengers on a ship from the Caribbean, were shut up in a house identified only by a red flag that read “God have mercy on this house.” Meanwhile, hundreds of residents of the bustling colonial town had started to flee for their lives, terrified of what might happen if they exposed themselves to the frequently deadly disease.

They had reason to fear. The virus was extremely contagious, spreading like wildfire in large epidemics. Smallpox patients experienced fever, fatigue and a crusty rash that could leave disfiguring scars. In up to 30 percent of cases, it killed.

A Boston advertisement for a cargo of about 250 enslaved people recently arrived from Africa circa 1700, particularly stressing that the enslaved people are free of smallpox, having been quarantined on their ship.

But the smallpox epidemic of 1721 was different than any that came before it. As sickness swept through the city, killing hundreds in a time before modern medical treatment or a robust understanding of infectious disease, an enslaved man known only as Onesimus suggested a potential way to keep people from getting sick. Intrigued by Onesimus’ idea, a brave doctor and an outspoken minister undertook a bold experiment to try to stop smallpox in its tracks.

Smallpox was one of the era’s deadliest afflictions. �w diseases at this time were as universal or fatal,” notes historian Susan Pryor. The colonists saw its effects not just among their own countrymen, but among the Native Americans to whom they introduced the disease. Smallpox destroyed Native communities that, with no immunity, were unable to fight off the virus.

Smallpox also entered the colonies on slave ships, transmitted by enslaved people who, in packed and unsanitary quarters, passed the disease along to one another and, eventually, to colonists at their destinations. One of those destinations was Massachusetts, which was a center of the early slave trade. The first enslaved people had arrived in Massachusetts in 1638, and by 1700, about 1,000 enslaved people lived in the colony, most in Boston.

Read all our pandemic coverage here

In 1706, an enslaved West African man was purchased for the prominent Puritan minister Cotton Mather by his congregation. Mather gave him the name Onesimus, after an enslaved man in the Bible whose name meant “useful.” Mather, who had been a powerful figure in the Salem Witch Trials, believed that owners of enslaved people had a duty to convert enslaved people to Christianity and educate them. But like other white men of his era, he also looked down on what he called the �vilish rites” of Africans and worried that enslaved people might openly rebel.

Mather didn’t trust Onesimus: He wrote about having to watch him carefully due to what he thought was “thievish” behavior, and recorded in his diary that he was “wicked” and “useless.” But in 1716, Onesimus told him something he did believe: That he knew how to prevent smallpox.

Onesimus, who “is a pretty intelligent fellow,” Mather wrote, told him he had had smallpox𠅊nd then hadn’t. Onesimus said that he “had undergone an operation, which had given him something of the smallpox and would forever preserve him from it. and whoever had the courage to use it was forever free of the fear of contagion.”

The operation Onesimus referred to consisted of rubbing pus from an infected person into an open wound on the arm. Once the infected material was introduced into the body, the person who underwent the procedure was inoculated against smallpox. It wasn’t a vaccination, which involves exposure to a less dangerous virus to provoke immunity. But it did activate the recipient’s immune response and protected against the disease most of the time.

Mather was fascinated. He verified Onesimus’ story with that of other enslaved people, and learned that the practice had been used in Turkey and China. He became an evangelist for inoculation𠅊lso known as variolation𠅊nd spread the word throughout Massachusetts and elsewhere in the hopes it would help prevent smallpox.

But Mather hadn’t bargained on how unpopular the idea would be. The same prejudices that caused him to distrust his servant made other white colonists reluctant to undergo a medical procedure developed by or for Black people. Mather “was vilified,” historian Ted Widmer told WGBH. 𠇊 local newspaper, called The New England Courant, ridiculed him. An explosive device was thrown through his windows with an angry note. There was an ugly racial element to the anger.” Religion also contributed: Other preachers argued that it was against God’s will to expose his creatures to dangerous diseases.

But in 1721, Mather and Zabdiel Boylston, the only physician in Boston who supported the technique, got their chance to test the power of inoculation. That year, a smallpox epidemic spread from a ship to the population of Boston, sickening about half of the city’s residents. Boylston sprang into action, inoculating his son and his enslaved workers against the disease. Then, he began inoculating other Bostonians. Of the 242 people he inoculated, only six died—one in 40, as opposed to one in seven deaths among the population of Boston who didn’t undergo the procedure.

The smallpox epidemic wiped out 844 people in Boston, over 14 percent of the population. But it had yielded hope for future epidemics. It also helped set the stage for vaccination. In 1796, Edward Jenner developed an effective vaccine that used cowpox to provoke smallpox immunity. It worked. Eventually, smallpox vaccination became mandatory in Massachusetts.

Did Onesimus live to see the success of the technique he introduced to Mather? It isn’t clear. Nothing is known of his later life other than that he partially purchased his freedom. To do so, writes historian Steven J. Niven, he gave Mather money to purchase another enslaved person. What is clear is that the knowledge he passed on saved hundreds of lives𠅊nd led to the eventual eradication of smallpox.

In 1980, the World Health Organization declared smallpox entirely eradicated due to the spread of immunization worldwide. It remains the only infectious disease to have been entirely wiped out. 


The journey to Mecca

Though the empire of Mali was home to so much gold, the kingdom itself was not well known.

This changed when Mansa Musa, a devout Muslim, decided to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca, passing through the Sahara Desert and Egypt.

The king reportedly left Mali with a caravan of 60,000 men.

He took his entire royal court and officials, soldiers, griots (entertainers), merchants, camel drivers and 12,000 slaves, as well as a long train of goats and sheep for food.

It was a city moving through the desert.

A city whose inhabitants, all the way down to the slaves, were clad in gold brocade and finest Persian silk. A hundred camels were in tow, each camel carrying hundreds of pounds of pure gold.

And the sight got even more opulent once the caravan reached Cairo, where they could really show off their wealth.


Real Estate Taxes

Do I have to pay real estate taxes?

YES . You are buying the property and you are responsible for paying the associated real estate taxes. Unless negotiations have led to a different result, taxes are generally prorated to the closing date. That means, for example, if you close on 7/1/2017, you will owe ½ of the taxes when the 2017 tax bill comes out in 2018.

Am I eligible for tax exemptions on the tax bill?

YES . You may qualify for the following exemptions: Owner Occupied, Senior Homestead, Senior Assessment Freeze, Disabled Persons, Disabled Veterans, Returning Veterans. Please note, in most cases, you have to be living in the property for the entire year to receive the exemption for that year. For example, if you purchased the home on 7/1/2017, you would not qualify for the deduction until the 2018 tax year.

With the completion of the necessary paperwork, you may qualify for the Owner Occupied exemption. In addition to the requirement to have lived in the property for the entire year, you must also make sure to have recorded your Agreement for Deed with the county and your Driver&rsquos License or Illinois State ID must list that property address for your residence. Taking the time to complete these simple steps can result in a huge savings for you. Please know that you can always contact our office for assistance and clarification if needed.

Included is an example of a before/after Home Owner&rsquos Exemption tax bill for 2017 real estate taxes. Before receiving the exemption the tax owed was $1,417.86 and after receiving the exemption, the tax was reduced to just $424.16. This is a savings of $993.70! Is there any reason why it wouldn&rsquot be worth your time to take the steps necessary to obtain this exemption?


The History of Smoked Brisket

What you know about the history of smoked brisket in Texas is probably wrong. People have been eating brisket since the first pits were dug in the earth, but only by a sort of default: it was standard practice to cook whole animals for the big community celebrations, which means people ate that cut of meat as part of a smoked-meat meal where all the various cuts were served. These days, smoked brisket on its own is widely considered the king of the Texas barbecue menu, but it hasn&rsquot always been that way, and contrary to some bold claims by certain barbecue joints, it didn&rsquot start with Central Texas meat markets.

Black&rsquos BBQ in Lockhart credits themselves with being the first to use briskets exclusively on their barbecue menu. That was in the late fifties. By the sixties the beef purveyor IBP was shipping individual beef cuts in boxes, and the tradition of working with half carcasses saw a swift decline. It wasn&rsquot until then that most of the barbecue joints around the state started adopting this inexpensive cut of meat. Joe Capello of City Market in Luling remembers when they would separate the forequarter away from the carcasses. The rib section and the sirloin would make it into the raw meat cases while the entirety of the front of the animal&ndashthe cross-cut chuck&ndashwould be separated and smoked. Back in those days you didn&rsquot ask for brisket or clod at these Central Texas meat markets. As Capello explains, &ldquoCustomers would just come in and ask for beef. If they wanted it fatty we&rsquod give them the brisket. If they wanted lean then we&rsquod do the shoulder clod.&rdquo The menu at Smitty&rsquos Market in Lockhart is reminder of those options. &ldquoLean&rdquo means shoulder clod and &ldquoFat&rdquo means brisket.

Allen Prine up in Wichita Falls remembers it the same way. His grandfather Harold Prine Sr. opened Prine&rsquos Market in 1925. They sold hams and beef, but not specifically brisket. They would just get the whole forequarter and butcher it themselves. &ldquoWe&rsquod cut these big these big 110-pound pieces into about eleven different shaped pieces. We cooked them all exactly like we do the briskets now.&rdquo He doesn&rsquot remember serving brisket on its own until about thirty years ago when they started ordering cryovaced ones. &ldquoIt&rsquos always been that way since.&rdquo

Two things came together to create the brisket we know today. The Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications (IMPS) for beef were first published in 1958, and boxed beef came onto the market in 1965. IMPS was a guide used in contracts for large meat purchases to ensure the buyer (read: at first, primarily the military) could get a predictable product when they ordered a thousand chuck rolls. These same specs are followed by meat packing plants for retail cuts, and customers as small as mom-and-pop barbecue joints order their meat based on IMPS. Whether they know it or not, that whole boneless brisket is really IMPS item #120. I wanted to know how much differently cattle were butchered before IMPS. Did briskets in the twenties look like they do today? I needed an expert.

Steve Olson separating the brisket from the forequarter in a NAMP video

Steve Olson is a cattle rancher in upstate New York, but he worked for USDA for decades. When he started his government job they needed someone to overhaul IMPS in 1983, and as he puts it &ldquoI was a lousy writer&rdquo and the specs didn&rsquot require any flowery language. He took to the task. Today you can find him and his Jersey accent starring in the meat cutting videos provided by NAMP. I asked him to surmise how Texas meat markets might have cut a brisket from the forequarter. He said the location of the cross cut used today that creates the top edge of the brisket is probably where they cut it back then too. The end of the sternum where the brisket cut begins is what he called a &ldquolandmark&rdquo for meat cutters back before IMPS. But it would probably have been smoked with the bones still attached. It wasn&rsquot until the mid-seventies when boneless briskets became standard. Steve traveled with some cryovac reps then as &ldquothey were trying to get the industry to make everything boneless so the cryovac wouldn&rsquot leak.&rdquo Now you can&rsquot find a bone-in brisket.

I&rsquom not sure what the briskets looked like back in the early twentieth century, but the earliest mention I can find of smoked brisket isn&rsquot from the fifties, and it wasn&rsquot at a barbecue joint. Rather it is from newspaper advertisements from two grocery stores in 1910. Naud Burnett in Greenville and Watson&rsquos Grocery in El Paso were both serving smoked brisket from their deli counter along with other traditionally Jewish food items like smoked white fish and Kosher sausage. I&rsquom not certain of the religion of these grocers, but their menu is geared toward a Jewish clientele.

A few years later in 1916 the Weil Brothers in Corpus Christi advertised their smoked brisket. The store was owned by Alex and Moise Weil. Their father Charles Weil was a Jew who emigrated to Texas from Alsace, France, in 1867. Pastrami (cured and smoked brisket) is a common item on Jewish menus, but in their store they sold pastrami (pastromie in the ad) along with smoked brisket. It probably wasn&rsquot served hot on butcher paper like the Central Texas meat markets, but those meat markets wouldn&rsquot be listing brisket on their menu for another forty years.

If you know the requirements of Kosher food, it makes sense that Jewish immigrants would be the first ones to smoke specifically brisket in the States. The hind quarter of beef isn&rsquot Kosher unless the sciatic nerve is removed, and that is rarely done by butchers. That leaves the forequarter including the brisket, which is revered as the cut of meat to enjoy for Passover. Evidently, it was also popular enough for the smoked version to make it into Jewish grocery stores in Texas long before it became the darling of our barbecue joints.


Our History

With more than three decades of experience operating government-sponsored programs, Centene remains as dedicated as ever to the health and unique needs of the communities it serves. In addition to being the largest Medicaid Managed Care Organization in the country, we are proud to be the largest carrier on the Health Insurance Marketplace and a national leader in managed long-term services and support. Our work with the healthcare programs of the Department of Defense has positioned Centene as one of the nation's largest providers of managed care services for military families and veterans. Through all of our efforts, we hold firm to our belief that every individual deserves access to high-quality healthcare with dignity.

1984: Founded as Family Hospital Physician Associates, the company is established by hospital bookkeeper Elizabeth “Betty” Brinn in Wisconsin.

19951996: Healthcare executive Michael Neidorff is named President and Chief Executive Officer and expands the company into Indiana.

1997: The company is renamed Centene Corporation, and its corporate office is established in St. Louis, Missouri. NurseWise, a nurse triage company and Centene's first subsidiary, is established.

2001: With three health plans, $327 million in revenue and 235,000 members, Centene becomes a publicly traded company.

2003: Adds Cenpatico, a behavioral health services company Centene debuts on the New York Stock Exchange.

2004: Centene reports $1 billion in revenue expands in Ohio as Buckeye Health Plan.

2006: Acquires additional nurse triage services Opticare, a vision management services company US Script, a pharmacy benefit management services company and Cardium, a disease management services company. These companies currently operate as Envolve. Establishes health plans in Georgia and Arizona.

2007: Absolute Total Care in South Carolina becomes Centene’s eighth managed care company.

2008: Acquires Celtic Group, Inc., a commercial insurance product company.

2009: Expands into Florida and Massachusetts.

2010: Joins the FORTUNE 500 list of largest U.S. corporations by revenue adds NovaSys Health in Arkansas.

2011: Adds Illinois and Mississippi health plans. Forms a correctional healthcare services company, Centurion, a joint venture with MHM Services, Inc.

2012: Operations for correctional healthcare services begin. Company expands health plans in Louisiana, Washington and Missouri.

2013: Grows to $10 billion in revenue and 2.7 million members. Acquires AcariaHealth, a specialty pharmacy benefit management services company. Adds Kansas, New Hampshire and California health plans.

2014: Ambetter brand introduced for Health Insurance Marketplace products enters two international markets, Spain and the United Kingdom adds U.S. Medical Management (USMM), an in-home health services company.

2015: Acquires health plans in Michigan and Oregon.

2016: Acquires Health Net and launches the Envolve brand for specialty whole-health solution companies.

2017: Expands operational footprint in Nebraska, Nevada, Maryland and New York. Listed No. 66 on the FORTUNE 500 list and No. 244 on the FORTUNE Global 500 list, Centene becomes the largest Medicaid managed care company in the U.S., as well as the No. 1 insurer in the nation on the Health Insurance Marketplace.

2018: Adds Pennsylvania and New York health plans launches the Allwell Medicare Advantage brand.

2019: Continued growth and innovation leads to being listed No. 51 on the FORTUNE 500 list., No. 168 on the FORTUNE Global 500 list, and No. 7 on the FORTUNE Change the World list.

2020: Combines with WellCare to create a premier healthcare enterprise serving more than 23 million members across all 50 states in the U.S.

As we’ve grown, Centene has never lost its focus on the individual. We have built a portfolio of health solutions that allow us to provide effective and accessible healthcare for the people we serve. Our Envolve family of specialty companies helps deliver a full spectrum of care, from physical health to emotional wellness. Meanwhile, cutting-edge research and insights from the Centene Center for Health Transformation™ – a unique partnership between Centene, the Brown School at Washington University in St. Louis, and the Center for Advanced Hindsight at Duke University – is showing us new ways to influence health behaviors in the millions of individuals we serve.


3 FOODS OF THE VIETNAMESE

Plain rice ( com trang ) is at the center of the Vietnamese diet. Steamed rice is part of almost every meal. The Vietnamese prefer long-grain white rice, as opposed to the short-grain rice more common in Chinese cooking. Rice is also transformed into other common ingredients such as rice wine, rice vinegar, rice noodles, and rice paper wrappers for spring rolls.

Rice is also used to make noodles. There are four main types of rice noodles used in Vietnamese cooking. Banh pho are the wide white noodles used in the quintessential Vietnamese soup, pho . Bun noodles (also called rice vermicelli) look like long white strings when cooked. Banh hoi are a thinner version of bun noodles. In addition, there are dried glass, or cellophane, noodles ( mien or bun tao ) made from mung bean starch.

Just as essential to Vietnamese cuisine as rice and noodles is nuoc mam , a salty fish sauce that is used in most Vietnamese recipes (just as salt is used in most Western dishes). Nuoc mam is produced in factories along the coast of Vietnam. Anchovies and salt are layered in wooden barrels and then allowed to ferment for about six months. The light-colored, first-drained sauce is the most desirable. It is also the most expensive and reserved primarily for table use. Less expensive nuoc mam is used in cooking. When shopping for nuoc mam , one should look for the words ca com on the label, which indicates the highest quality.

The most popular condiment is nuoc cham (dipping sauce), which is as common in Vietnam as ketchup is in North America. Saucers filled with nuoc cham are present at practically every meal, and diners dip everything from spring rolls to meatballs into it. The recipe that follows can be adjusted to suit individual tastes by using more or less red pepper and nuoc mam. Nuoc cham is quite simple to make and will keep in the refrigerator for up to 30 days. A few spoonfuls over a bowl of plain rice can be considered an authentic Vietnamese peasant meal.

Nuoc Cham (Dipping Sauce)

Ingredients

  • 1 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes
  • 1 Tablespoon distilled white vinegar
  • ½ cup nuoc mam (fish sauce), available at Asian markets
  • ½ cup fresh lime juice
  • 4 cloves garlic, minced
  • ½ cup sugar

Procedure

  1. In a small bowl, soak the red pepper flakes in the vinegar for 10� minutes.
  2. In a second bowl, combine the fish sauce, lime juice, garlic, and sugar.
  3. Stir in 1½ cups boiling water and the pepper-vinegar mixture.
  4. Stir until the sugar is dissolved. Allow to cool. Serve at room temperature.
  5. Store in a jar in the refrigerator for up to 30 days.

Fish and other aquatic animals, such as squid and eel, are central to the Vietnamese diet. Beef, pork, and chicken are also important, but are consumed in smaller quantities. The unique flavorings in Vietnamese cooking are created with a variety of spices and seasonings, including mint leaves, parsley, coriander, lemon grass, shrimp, fish sauces ( nuoc nam and nuoc cham ), peanuts, star anise, black pepper, garlic, shallots, basil, rice vinegar, sugar, green onions, and lime juice. To provide a contrast in texture and flavor to the spicy meat components of a meal, vegetables are often left raw and cut into small pieces (usually cut at an angle, or julienne), especially in the south. Cool, crunchy foods include cucumbers and bean sprouts. The typical Vietnamese meal includes meat and vegetables, either eaten with chopsticks and rice or rolled into rice paper or (red) leaf lettuce and dipped into an accompanying sauce. Traditional preparation techniques are determined by eating habits, geography, and economics.

Pho bo (Beef Noodle Soup) is the signature dish of Vietnamese cuisine. It is often eaten for breakfast, purchased from sidewalk vendors on the way to work or school. Pho bo is also a common home-cooked meal, and it is a fun dish to prepare for a group. Seated around a table with dishes of ingredients in the center, each person is given a bowl of spicy beef broth. Then, each selects his or her vegetables and noodles to add to the broth. No two bowls of pho bo are alike.

Dessert is not as common in Vietnam as it is in North America, except perhaps for a piece of fresh fruit. One exception is sweet coconut custard, which might follow a celebratory meal.

Food Words in Vietnamese

gao (gow) = uncooked rice

com (gum) = cooked rice

nuoc mam (nook mum) = fish sauce

cuon (coom) = salad or lettuce

Pho Bo (Beef Noodle Soup)

Broth ingredients

  • 3 cans beef broth (low-salt suggested)
  • 2 carrots, julienne
  • 4 slices fresh ginger, chopped
  • 1 cinnamon stick
  • 1 star anise
  • 2 whole cloves
  • 2 cloves garlic
  • 2 teaspoons black peppercorns
  • 3 Tablespoons fish sauce

Accompaniments ingredients

  • ½ pound roast beef (may be purchased from a deli), sliced into very thin bite-sized strips
  • 1 onion, thinly sliced
  • 2 cups fresh bean sprouts
  • ¼ cup chopped cilantro
  • 1 bunch fresh basil, coarsely chopped
  • 2 or more chilies, sliced at a diagonal
  • 2 limes, cut into wedges
  • 1 package rice noodles, cooked

Procedure

  1. Make broth by pouring contents from three cans of broth into a large saucepan.
  2. Add carrots, ginger, cinnamon, star anise, cloves, garlic, and peppercorns.
  3. Simmer covered for 20 minutes.
  4. Add fish sauce and simmer about 5 more minutes.
  5. Strain by pouring through a colander.
  6. To serve, arrange the following on a platter: beef, onion, bean sprouts, cilantro, basil, chilies, lime wedges, and noodles.
  7. Ladle the broth into bowls, and serve.
  8. Each person chooses items from the platter to add to his or her bowl of broth.

Coconut Custard

Ingredients

  • 5 eggs
  • 1 cup coconut milk
  • 1 cup granulated sugar
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla

Procedure

  1. Beat eggs, sugar, coconut milk, and vanilla until frothy.
  2. Pour into ramekins (small baking cups).
  3. Place in a steamer over boiling water.
  4. Cover and cook about 20 minutes or until set. Chill.

25 Greatest Quarterbacks in NFL History

Don't knock these old guys just because you may have never heard of them: Look 'em up.

Aikman's career completion % was 61.46. For his era, that was very good. But Steve Young, Joe Montana and Brett Favre had higher career completion percentages. Outside of his era, even Brady, Brees, Roethlisberger, Rodgers, Ryan, Stafford, Wilson, Rivers, Alex Smith, Flacco, Peyton, Kurt Warner, Carson Palmer, Jay Cutler and Tony Romo, to name a few, had higher completion percentage.

And a awesome running game doesn't make a QBs stats worse. If anything, it makes them better, as teams have to stack more players in the box, leaving WRs to be covered by fewer DBs and making play-action infinitely more effective.

But his scramble abilities are otherworldly! I mean, any other QB behind those awful O-Lines either would have been sacked 100+ times a season, or would have been straight KIA.

And he keeps making the plays! Just look at that ridiculous TD pass to Lockett against the Rams (Oct 3, 2019)!

But, of course, this list will be rendered obsolete in 2-3 years if Mahomes keeps mahoming the league.

The explanation to me is simple. It's harder to block for a quarterback who scrambles and holds the ball too long. When Russell misses an open receiver, dances all over the field, and then completes some miraculous Hail Mary pass, we all say how great he is. Meanwhile, Tom Brady would have checked down for a 5 yard gain.

Russell Wilson is an excellent quarterback, but he needs to help his O-line succeed.

Russell Wilson has the 3rd-lowest Interception % in NFL history, trailing only Aaron Rodgers and Tom Brady.

Wilson's numbers are better than Brees, Manning, Elway, Marino, Young, Unitas, Warner, Montana. well, everybody. Except Rodgers and Brady.

Aikman played well in big games, but the fact is that he's closer to Eli Manning than to anyone else on this list - and Eli's not there. Both never made first team all-pro. Aikman has one more Super Bowl win than Eli does (3 for Aikman, 2 for Eli), while Eli won 2 SB MVP awards to 1 for Aikman. Neither ever won regular season MVP awards. And while Aikman has the extra title, he ALSO was far less durable and played far fewer seasons that Eli has.

Also, how are Russell Wilson and Ben Roethlisberger both rated ahead of someone like Eli Manning? Neither Russell nor Ben have regular season MVPs, while neither has a Super Bowl MVP, either. Ben and Eli have both won 2 championships, and Wilson's won 1 Super Bowl, but only Eli - with 2 - has a Super Bowl MVP award. Wilson has a chance to win a regular season MVP this year, but until he gets one or wins another ring, it's tough to have him this high. Meanwhile in comparison to the historic durability of Eli, Ben's repeated inability to play all 16 games in a season is a strike against him.

Judging a QB's quality based upon SB appearances, or worse, SB wins, is misguided, IMO. Trent Dilfer won a Super Bowl. Warren Moon never played in one. Is there any sane person on this planet that would argue that Dilfer was on any level better than Moon?


Watch the video: Every Territory the US has Ever PURCHASED..


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