Aichi D1A Dive Bomber 'Susie'

Aichi D1A Dive Bomber 'Susie'


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Aichi D1A Dive Bomber 'Susie'

The Aichi D1A Diver Bomber 'Susie' was a carrier dive-bomber based on the Heinkel He 66 that saw service with the Japanese Navy during the 1930s.

The Japanese Navy became interested in dive bombers very early on, and issued 6-Shi and 7-Shi specifications, both of which resulted in experimental Nakajima aircraft. Unfortunately neither design was suitable for service and in 1933 a new 8-Shi specification for a two-man carrier dive bomber was issued. This specified higher performance figures than the earlier aircraft, combined with a strong structure and good manoeuvrability. Nakajima, Aichi and the Navy's own internal team at Dai-Ichi Kaigun Koku Gijitusho were each asked to produce a design.

Nakajima produced the D2N, also a biplane, but this performed badly in the contest. The Dai-Ichi Kaigan Koku design was produced as the Experimental Kusho 8-Shi Special Bomber (D2Y1), but also proved to have problems.

Aichi already had a partnership in place with Heinkel, and in 1931 asked them to develop a dive bomber. This had to be able to carry a 550lb bomb load and operate with wheels or floats. Heinkel produced the He 50,a two-bay biplane with a mixed welded steel tube and wooden structure and a fabric covering. The first prototype had a 390hp Junkers L 5 engine, but this wasn't powerful enough and the second used a 490hp Siemens Jupiter VI (SAM-22B) radial engine. These aircraft were produced during 1931. A single prototype was then exported to Japan, with the designation Heinkel He 66. The basic design was also accepted for German service as the He 50, and a batch of He 66s was even produced for Nationalist China (although never delivered).

Aichi modified the design to make it more suited for Japanese needs. This involved replacing the Siemens engine with a 560hp Nakajima Kotobuki 2 Kai 1 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine and the production of a stronger undercarriage capable of dealing with carrier landings.

The first prototype of the Aichi Special Bomber (Aichi designation AB-9) was submitted to the Navy, and underwent tests against the Nakajima D2N and the Kusho D2Y1. It outperformed both designs, and late in 1934 the type was ordered into production as the Navy Type 94 Carrier Bomber or Aichi D1A1.

The D1A1 was a two bay biplane of mixed welded steel tube and wooden structure with a fabric covering. The Nakajima engine was given a Townend ring. The wings were swept back by 5 degrees and a fixed tailwheel was installed. It was armed with two fixed forward firing 7.7mm Type 92 machine guns and one flexibly mounted 7.7mm Type 92 gun. It could carry two 66lb bombs under the wings and one 551lb on a swing--down mounting under the fuselage. A total of 162 aircraft were built, 118 with the 580hp Nakajima 2 Kai 1 and 44 with the Kotobuki 3.

The D1A2 was designed in 1935. It had a 730hp Nakajima Hikari 1 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine in a NACA cowling, an improved wind shield and streamlined wheel spats. The prototype was completed in the autumn of 1936 and it entered production as the Navy Type 96 Carrier Bomber (D1A2). The D1A2 was produced in larger numbers than the D1A1, with a total of 428 built between 1936 and 1940. The extra engine power increased the aircraft's top speed by 18mph and shaved over a minute and a half off the climb time to 9,845ft.

Both the D1A1 and D1A2 saw service at the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Over its career the D1A was used on the carriers Akagi, Kaga and Ryujo and with the 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th Kokutais of land based aircraft.

The D1A1 had largely been phased out by 1941, although a few remained in training units.

The D1A2 had a slightly longer career In 1937 it became infamous around the world after the type was used to sink the American gunboat Panay in the Yangtze River on 12 December 1937. 68 were still in use with second line units in December 1941, and it was given the Allied code name Susie. By this point the aircraft was obsolete, and it soon disappeared from even these units. The original Heinkel He 50 actually had a longer active career, and was used with night harassment units in 1943-44.

D1A1
Engine: Nakajima 2 Kai 1
Power: 560hp
Crew: 2
Span: 37ft 3 5/8in
Length: 30ft 10 1/16in
Height: 11ft 2 13/16in
Empty weight: 3,086lb
Loaded weight: 5,291lb
Max speed: 174mph at 6,725ft
Climb Rate: 9min 30sec to 9, 845ft
Service ceiling: 7,000m
Range: 656 miles
Armament: Two fixed forward firing 7.7mm Type 92 machine guns and one flexibly mounted 7.7mm Type 92 machine gun
Bomb load: Two 66lb bombs under wings, one 551lb bomb under fuselage

D1A2
Engine: Nakajima Hikari 1 nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine
Power: 730hp
Crew: 2
Span: 37ft 4 13/16
Length: 30ft 6 1/8in
Height: 11ft 2 1/4in
Empty weight: 3,342lb
Loaded weight: 5,512lb
Max speed: 192mph at 10,500ft
Climb Rate: 7min 51sec to 9,845ft
Service ceiling: 22,900ft
Armament: Two fixed forward firing 7.7mm Type 92 machine guns and one flexibly mounted 7.7mm Type 92 machine gun
Bomb load: Two 66lb bombs under wings, one 551lb bomb under fuselage


Aichi D1A Dive Bomber 'Susie' - History

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Aichi D1A "Susie"
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Type: Carrier based dive bomber
Origin: Aichi
Crew: Two
Allied Code Name: Susie
Models: D1A1 & D1A2
First Flight: N/A
Service Delivery: N/A
Final Delivery: N/A
Production: D1A1: 206, D1A2: 428
Powerplant:
D1A1 (Inital 162):
Model: Nakajima Kotobuki 2 Kai 1
Type: Radial
Number: One Horsepower: 560 hp

D1A1 (Last 44):
Model: Nakajima Kotobuki 3
Type: Radial
Number: One Horsepower: 580 hp

D1A2:
Model: Nakajima Hikari 1
Type: Radial
Number: One Horsepower: 730 hp

Dimensions:
Wing Span: 37 ft. 4½ in. (11.40m)
Length: 30 ft. 6 in. (9.30m)
Height: 11 ft. 2¼ in. (3.41m)
Wing Area: 373.52 sq. ft. (34.70m²)

Weights:
Empty: 3,342 lb. (1516 kg.)
Loaded: 5,754 lb. (2610 kg.)
Performance:
Max. Speed: 193 mph (310 kph) at 10,500 ft.
Cruise Speed: 137 mph (220 kph) at 3,280 ft.
Service Ceiling: 22,965 ft. (7000m)
Climb to 9,845 ft.: 7 minutes 50 second.
Range: 578 miles (930 km)
Armament:
Two 7.7mm Type 92 machine guns fixed forward.
One 7.7mm Type 92 machine gun on flexible mount in rear position.


Airplanes in the skies + FAF history

The Aichi D1A or Navy Type 94/96 Carrier Bomber (Allied reporting name "Susie") was a Japanese carrier-based dive bomber of the 1930s. A single-engine, two-seat biplane based on the Heinkel He 50, the D1A was produced by Aichi for the Imperial Japanese Navy, remaining in service as a trainer at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor.


The D1A was produced in two variants, the D1A1 (Navy Type 94 Carrier Bomber), and the D1A2 (Navy Type 96 Carrier Bomber, sometimes referred to as the D2A.)

The D1A came out of the Imperial Japanese Navy's need for an advanced carrier-based dive bomber, and in late 1934 the IJN ordered the finalisation of the Aichi AB-9 design which was produced as the early model D1A1. However, the D1A1 was not designed by Aichi Tokei Denki Kabushiki Kaisha aircraft company, but by Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke at the request of the Aichi company. The initial version designed by Heinkel was the He 50, a similar model equipped with floats instead of landing gear. The subsequent model, the He 66 was provided to Aichi who immediately began production of it as the D1A1.

The design of the D1A, based on the Heinkel He 66, an export model of the He 50, was designed as a biplane constructed of metal, with a fabric covering, a fixed landing gear and a conventional type tail landing skid. Original models had 365 kW (490 hp) engines and it was not until later models that more powerful 433 kW (580 hp) engines were included in the construction.
-------------------------------------
Aichi D1A (liittoutuneiden raportointinimi Susie) oli Aichi Kōkūkin valmistama kaksitasoinen kaksipaikkainen syöksypommittaja, jota käytti keisarillisen Japanin laivaston ilmavoimat toisessa maailmansodassa vuoteen 1942 asti. Sen aseistuksena oli kolme 7,7 mm kevyttä konekivääriä, joista yksi taka-ampumossa. Koneen pommikuorma oli enimmillään 310 kg koneen ulkopuolisissa ripustimissa.

Konetyyppi oli Tyynenmeren sodassa vain koulutuskäytössä, mutta Kiinan-Japanin sodassa kuitenkin laajalti hyökkäystehtävissä. A1-tyypin tuotanto määrättiin vuonna 1934. Siinä oli 580 hevosvoiman (433 kW) tehoinen Nakajima Kotobuki -tähtimoottori. Parannettua A2-mallia valmistettiin enemmän, sekä se oli varustettu tehokkaammalla Hikari -moottorilla.

Tämän tyypin niin kutsuttu esi-isä oli saksalaisten Heinkel He 66, alkujaan Heinkel He 50.

General characteristics

Crew: 2: pilot and gunner
Length: 9.3 m
Wingspan: 11.4 m
Height: 3.41 m
Wing area: 34.7 m²
Empty weight: 1,516 kg
Loaded weight: 2,500 kg
Max. takeoff weight: 2,610 kg
Powerplant: 1 × Nakajima Hikari 1 nine-cylinder radial engine, 730 hp (545 kW)
Maximum speed: 309 km/h
Range: 927 km
Service ceiling: 6,980 m
Rate of climb: 6.37 m/s
Wing loading: 72.0 kg/m²
Power/mass: 0.22 kW/kg
Armament
Guns: 2× fixed 7.7 mm Type 92 mg, + 1× flexible 7.7 mm Type 92 mg

Bombs: 1× 250 kg bomb under fuselace + 2吚 kg bombs under wings



Operational history
The D1A was primarily used in the Second Sino-Japanese War and up to the time Japan entered World War II in 1941. At the beginning of the Pacific War, all of the remaining D1A1s were decommissioned and most of the D1A2s were retired from the front lines and served primarily in training units. The exception was 68 of the D1A2 model that operated as a second-line support until being retired in 1942.

Operators
Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service

Manchukuo Imperial Navy

Variants
D1A1 Type 94
Powered by 433 kW (580 hp) Nakajima Kotobuki 2 Kai 1 or Kotobuki 3 radial engines 162 built.
D1A2 Type 96 (Sometimes referred to as the D2A)
Improved version fitted with spatted wheels and a higher powered Nakajima Hikari 1 engine 428 built.
AB-11
Proposed development with retractable undercarriage. Not built.


Aichi D1A Dive Bomber 'Susie' - History

The Aichi D1A or Navy Type 94/96 Carrier Bomber (Allied code name "Susie") was a Japanese carrier-based dive bomber of built in 1934/5). A single-engine, two-seat biplane based on the Heinkel He 50, it was produced by Aichi for the Imperial Japanese Navy, remaining in service as trainers at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor. The D1A was produced in two variants, the D1A1 (Navy Type 94 Carrier Bomber), and the D1A2 (Navy Type 96 Carrier Bomber, sometimes referred to as the D2A.). The D1A was primarily used in the Second Sino-Japanese War and up to the time Japan entered World War II in 1941. At the beginning of the Pacific War, all of the remaining D1A1s were decommissioned and most of the D1A2s were retired from the front lines and served primarily in training units. The exception was 68 of the D1A2 model that operated as a second-line support until being retired in 1942.

Aichi D1A2 Type 96

Additional information on this aircraft can be found at Wikipedia HERE .

For a very nice scale color drawing of this aircraft, see here .

Additional color schemes for this aircraft can be found here.

If you don't see the table of contents at the left of your screen, CLICK HERE to see the rest of this website!


Contents

The D1A came out of the Imperial Japanese Navy's need for an advanced carrier-based dive bomber, and in late 1934 the IJN ordered the finalisation of the Aichi AB-9 design which was produced as the early model D1A1. [ 2 ] However, the D1A1 was not designed by Aichi Tokei Denki Kabushiki Kaisha aircraft company, but by Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke at the request of the Aichi company. [ 4 ] The initial version designed by Heinkel was the He 50, a similar model equipped with floats instead of landing gear. [ 4 ] The subsequent model, the He 66 was provided to Aichi who immediately began production of it as the D1A1. [ 4 ]

The design of the D1A, based on the Heinkel He 66, an export model of the He 50, was designed as a biplane constructed of metal, with a fabric covering, a fixed landing gear and a conventional type tail landing skid. [ 4 ] Original models had 365 kW (490 hp) engines and it was not until later models that more powerful 433 kW (580 hp) engines were included in the construction. [ 4 ]


Mục lục

Aichi D1A được đưa ra nhằm đáp ứng nhu cầu của Hải quân Đế quốc Nhật Bản về một kiểu máy bay ném bom bổ nhào tiên tiến hoạt động trên các tàu sân bay, và vào cuối năm 1934 Hải quân Nhật đã yêu cầu hoàn thiện thiết kế chiếc Aichi AB-9 vốn được sản xuất như là kiểu nguyên mẫu của chiếc D1A1. [2] Tuy nhiên, thực ra D1A1 không phải là thiết kế của công ty Aichi Tokei Denki Kabushiki Kaisha, nhưng được vẻ kiểu bởi Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke từ yêu cầu của Aichi. [3] Phiên bản đầu tiên được thiết kế bởi Heinkel là kiểu He 50, một kiểu có thiết kế tương tự nhưng được trang bị phao nổi thay cho càng đáp. [3] Kiểu kế tiếp He 66 được cung cấp cho Aichi và ngay lập tức được đưa vào sản xuất dưới tên gọi D1A1. [3]

Thiết kế của chiếc D1A được dựa trên kiểu máy bay He 66 và được thiết kế như là một máy bay cánh kép có cấu trúc bằng kim loại và bề mặt được phủ vải, một bộ càng đáp cố định và thanh trượt hạ cánh phía sau đuôi kiểu thông thường. [3] Những kiểu ban đầu trang bị động cơ công suất 365 kW, các kiểu sau đó được trang bị loại động cơ mạnh hơn công suất 433 kW. [3]

Kiểu D1A được sử dụng ban đầu trong cuộc Chiến tranh Trung Nhật và kép dài cho đến khi Nhật Bản tham gia Thế Chiến II vào năm 1941, nhưng chỉ còn một ít thực sự được sử dụng trong chiến đấu. Tất cả những chiếc D1A1 còn lại đều đã ngừng sử dụng, và đa số những chiếc phiên bản D1A2 đều được rút khỏi các nhiệm vụ nơi tuyến đầu để phục vụ chủ yếu trong các đơn vị huấn luyện. Chỉ còn trường hợp ngoại lệ của 68 chiếc phiên bản D1A2 hoạt động hỗ trợ ở tuyến hai cho đến khi được cho nghỉ hưu vào năm 1942. [2]


The D3A1 is Japan's early dive bomber, a highly manoeuvrable aircraft that is able to outturn a lot of enemies and avoid bursts of fire. Having a small turn radius gives the D3A1 a chance to defend itself by getting on the tail of enemy, but if the enemy is smart enough and doesn't try to turn with the D3A1, they can run away from the D3A1 after it has lost a bit of speed in turning around to get on the tail. But the D3A1 can still get in a couple of hits.

D3A1 is capable of carrying a modest bomb load which is similar to early versions of Ju 87. But it's also similar in terms of firepower as well with 2 x 7.7 mm Type 97 navy machine guns which can be used to defend itself from enemies, but also strafe light targets like AA/howitzer postions and light armoured vehicles like trucks and SPAA. D3A1 also has a defensive Type 92 machine gun mounted on the back, the gunner has an impressive area of cover which eliminates most dead zones that other dive bombers and some bombers have.

Main use of the D3A1 is dive bombing, that is where its strength lies, knocking out ground targets in ground battles or the AI targets in air battles, being able to dive near ground using the air brakes for accurate drop of bombs. After dropping bombs the D3A1 can be used as a fighter, but keep in mind that it has a relatively unprotected pilot and gunner, which makes it easy for enemy fighters and vehicles on the ground with AA-mounted machine guns to knock these out. The plane does not react well to being hit as well but it can still function relatively well even when damaged and can still put up a fight. Aircraft and vehicles equipped with 12.7 mm and above will make a quick work of the D3A1 either by getting the pilots or vital parts of the plane but also to set it on fire. 7.92 mm and below can also pose a threat if there is more than 1 mainly.

Enemies to be aware of:

These kinds of enemies can easily outclimb and outspeed the D3A1 except the I-153 which can outturn D3A1 with ease. But the rest possesses greater firepower and speed than the D3A1 being able to Boom-n-Zoom the plane and run away fast, giving the D3A1 no chance to defend itself with its offensive machine guns.

Tip for taking off in simulator battles

Hands-off carrier take-off (Auto engine control, no secondary weapons):

  • Start engine
  • Flaps: raised
  • Elevator trim: 8% up
  • Aileron trim: 0%
  • Rudder trim: 21% right
  • WEP throttle
  • hands off controls until your plane lifts off the carrier.

Manual Engine Control

MEC elements
Mixer Pitch Radiator Supercharger Turbocharger
Oil Water Type
Not controllable Controllable
Not auto controlled
Not controllable
Not auto controlled
Controllable
Not auto controlled
Combined Not controllable
1 gear
Not controllable

Pros and cons

  • D3A for Carrier-based dive bomber:
    • 250 kg + 2 x 60 kg
    • Bomber airspawn
    • Airbrakes
    • Nose mounted armament
    • Excellent manoeuvrability
    • D3A for Carrier-based dive bomber:
      • Has bomb cradle, significant delay in fuselage bomb drop
      • Not good for bombing bases
      • Poor offensive armament: 7.7 mm Type 97 MG
      • Poor defensive armament: 7.7 mm Type 92 MG
      • Fragile, little armour, and no self-sealing fuel tanks
      • Exposed tail gunner
      • Payload is rather weak

      History

      The D3A was made to replace the older D1A biplane and it did so quite successfully. Prototypes had the original D1A Hikari 1 engine, but because of this, the prototype was underpowered and another flaw were the dive brakes which malfunctioned. Α]

      An Aichi D3A2 undergoing repairs

      The D3A was finally put into service in 1940 when the Japanese navy designated the Navy Type 99 Carrier Bomber Model 11. The D3A served with the Japanese navy throughout the war whether it was being used in a kamikaze role (this was often put into practice in 1945) or being used as a bomber. The first use of the D3A in combat was over the skies of China. It was soon pressed into service and was used in the Attack on Pearl Harbor and many other battles. Over twenty different ships including destroyers, cruisers, and aircraft carriers were destroyed by D3A bombers. These ships were from Australia, Great Britain , and the United States . The D3A was responsible for the sinking of more ships than any other axis aircraft. Β] The Aichi D3A stopped production in 1944, but was still used by Japanese airmen. The D3A and its variants proved to be an effective bomber although the Yokosuka D4Y Suisei somewhat replaced it.


      Aviation of Japan 日本の航空史

      The impressive box art on the Dragon kit is by Masao Satake, well known for his monochrome Famous Aircraft of the World (FAOW) cover art. The kit offers no less than eight Pearl Harbor markings options but depicts them all as grey - very grey - and not the distinctively amber or mustard grey of the original aircraft so excellently depicted by Eric Bergerud on his 1/48th scale Hasegawa D3A1 build here. The red of the Hinomaru appears a bit light on the kit decal sheet which is protected by its own re-sealable bag - a nice touch. The recent Midway 1942 issue contains options for four dark green aircraft and although I haven't seen it I understand from Mike Quan that it has not been revised in any way and contains identical parts to the kit described here.

      Without going into rivet counter mode with a micrometer and painstaking comparison of panel line to panel line there are obvious problems - but there are also some impressive details not attempted in previous kits. I searched for some build reviews mainly in vain, but found an excellent Japanese article here, from which the image below is borrowed and which has further images including the cockpit interior. I note that the builder painted the markings on his model using stencils rather than the kit decals.

      The engine in the Dragon kit is separate and moulded in two parts, quite reasonably, whereas it is just a half-moulding in the Fujimi kit. There are separate exhausts but their location is not very clearly shown in the instructions. The under cowling intake moulded integrally with the lower wing has the correct split configuration but the inner side of each trunk has no wall and is left open. The central bomb crutch detail is impressive but the two parts are numbered C20 and C26 in the instructions but C23 and C30 on the actual sprue frame - a recurring theme. The large central bomb is in three parts, the bomb itself, one pair of separate fins and one piece representing the fin struts. Wing racks and bombs are also included with one pair of integrally moulded fins and one separately moulded pair for each bomb. The dive flaps have separate mounts which look like they might prove fiddly to install. The wings can be displayed folded and the flaps deployed which accentuates the wing expanse of the original aircraft. However all of the control surfaces have rather crudely moulded and overscale ridges supposed to represent ribs which will need sanding down at least.

      Both the Airfix and Dragon kits have separate wheels and spats with the latter incorporating "flats" to suggest weight. Fujimi moulded the wheel integrally with each spat half. Both the Dragon and Fujimi undercarriage legs incorporate rake back whilst the Airfix kit depicts them aligned vertically. Comparing the kit parts to the 1/72nd scale plans in FAOW 130 (2009) the Fujimi spats appear to be reasonably accurate, the Dragon spats are under scale with slightly exaggerated rake back and the Airfix spats are set at the wrong angle and too elongated to their rear.

      Comparing the main fuselage profiles to the FAOW 130 plans both the Dragon and Fujimi parts appear reasonable in shape if not perfect, so the Dragon kit does not appear to be under scale per se. However the Dragon fuselage is about 2mm too short in the area from the cowling flaps to the windscreen. The wings of the two kits appear generally ok in span and shape but the wing fold of both appears to be 5mm inboard of where it should be. This inboard position tallies with earlier plans in FAOW 33 (1992). The anomaly is quite difficult to understand because both books contain construction plans from the original manual. Does it matter? Probably not (Heresy! Burn the Witch!).


      The apparent lack of modelling popularity of the Aichi D3A compared to the B5N 'Kate' was mentioned in the previous blog and is perhaps all the more surprising as there is a very fine English language monograph on the type by Peter C Smith in the generally very good Crowood Aviation series (The Crowood Press, 1999), something the B5N does not presently enjoy. Whether it is that lack of popularity or the jungle telegraph reputation of Dragon kits - or both - that has led to so few builds appearing online is a mystery to ponder.

      Is the Dragon kit worth it? Well that really depends upon your enthusiasm for the type and whether you can obtain one at a price that suits your wallet. There is little doubt the kit has flaws in shape and dimensions which is disappointing in view of the fact that the detail is generally superior to the Fujimi kit and makes the Airfix kit look as if it was carved from soap. Apart from the instruction errors the worst and most glaring flaw is the cockpit aperture and canopy. Rob Taurus do not appear to have a replacement D3A1 vacform canopy in their range but Falcon produce a set that includes a replacement canopy intended for the Fujimi kit and that could perhaps be adapted to fit the Dragon kit. The features that are better than in previous kits are the surface detail and small parts, the engine and prop, the nice but irritatingly incomplete interior, the ordinance and racks, the folding wings, the positionable wing flaps and the cowling flap options. All three kits fail to depict the precise shape of the fin leading edge extension but that is not too noticeable. With a bit of work on the Dragon kit an impressive looking model can still result as the Japanese modeller linked above demonstrates.

      So how does the much-maligned Airfix kit stack up in terms of overall fidelity of shape? Well, apart from the spats and copious rivets it is a little short in wing span with the tips too tapered and therefore too narrow in chord. The rudder is also a little too narrow in chord. The forward cowling rim is slightly anaemic but nothing to write home about. The RDF loop fairing is not represented at all. The cockpit detail is limited to two identical and inaccurate seats secured to pins. The canopy parts, which appear to have been cleaned up in the latest re-issue, are more accurate in plan than the Dragon canopy. The tailplanes are pretty much spot on. Interesting that the box art of the re-issued kit appears to faithfully reproduce the kit spats rather than the real thing. Thus builders without D3A references will be perfectly unperturbed.

      Is it, in the vernacular, a PoS? Not really, given the context of its age and the state of kit engineering at that time. My assessment of 5 years ago, that it is essentially "simple, unpretentious and honest" has not altered. I've built it several times, without fretting too much over its minor inaccuracies and 1960s detailing, and have always enjoyed the experience. Improving it in various ways without too high an expectation of the end result is both fun and very satisfying. Some of the barmier flights of my fancy have involved a Graf Zeppelin based example in German markings and a licence-built Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm example (the Anglo-Japanese Naval Alliance never ended) with a Bristol engine (the Airfix crew redeemed). And it always looks good hanging from the ceiling in a simulated dive.


      Watch the video: Airfix 172 Aichi D3A1


      Comments:

      1. Cuarto

        You're joking?

      2. Brougher

        I recommend you to visit the site, on which there is a lot of information on this question.

      3. Kazrajind

        figase O_O

      4. Ebissa

        Easier when cornering!

      5. Chadwyk

        Quite right! I like your idea. I propose to fix the topic.



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