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In 770 BCE, the capital of the Zhou Kingdom was moved from Haojing (Changan County in Xi'an City) to Luoyi (known today as Luoyang, Henan Province).
This brought about the beginning of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (as opposed to Western Zhou dynasty), so named due to Luoyi being situated to the east of Haojing. Over 25 kings reigned over the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, lasting 515 years in all. [ citation needed ]
With the death of King You of Zhou,  the last king of the Western Zhou Dynasty, ascended Crown Prince Yijiu was proclaimed the new king by the nobles from the states of Zheng, Lü, Qin and the Marquess of Shen. He was King Ping of Zhou. In the second year of his reign, he moved the capital east to Luoyi as Quanrong invaded Haojing, indicating the end of the Western Zhou dynasty. The first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty, from approximately 771 to 476 BCE, was called the Spring and Autumn period, during which more and more dukes and marquesses obtained regional autonomy, defying the king's court in Luoyi, and waging wars amongst themselves. The second half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty, from 475 to 221 BCE, was called the Warring States period,  during which the King of Zhou gradually lost his power and ruled merely as a figurehead.
After moving the capital east, the Zhou royal family fell into a state of decline. Also, King Ping's popularity fell as rumors went that he had killed his father. With vassals becoming increasingly powerful, strengthening their position through defeating other rival states, and increasing invasion from neighboring countries, the king of Zhou was not able to master the country. Constantly, he would have to turn to the powerful vassals for help. The most important vassals (known later as the twelve vassals) came together in regular conferences where they decided important matters, such as military expeditions against foreign groups or against offending nobles.  During these conferences one vassal ruler was sometimes declared hegemon. Chancellor Guan Zhong of Qi initiated a policy "Revere the king, expel the barbarians" (Chinese: 尊王攘夷 , see Sonnō jōi). Adopting and adhering to it, Duke Huan of Qi assembled the vassals to strike down the threat of barbarians from the country. During the Warring States period, many of the leaders of the vassals’ clamoring for kingship further limited the Zhou royal family's influence. 
In 635 BCE, the Chaos of Prince Dai took place. King Xiang of Zhou turned to Duke Wen of Jin for help, who killed Prince Dai and was rewarded with rule over Henei and Yangfan.  In 632 BCE, King Xiang of Zhou was forced by Duke Wen of Jin to attend the conference of vassals in Jiantu. 
In 606 BCE, King Zhuang of Chu inquired for the first time regarding the "weight of the cauldrons" (问鼎之轻重) only to be rebuffed by the Zhou minister Wangsun Man (王孙满).  Asking such a question was at that time a direct challenge to the power of the reigning dynasty.
At the time of King Nan of Zhou, the kings of Zhou had lost almost all political and military power, as even their remaining crown land was split into two states or factions, led by rival feudal lords: West Zhou, where the capital Wangcheng was located, and East Zhou, centered at Chengzhou and Kung. King Nan of Zhou managed to preserve his weakened dynasty through diplomacy and conspiracies for fifty-nine years until his deposition and death by Qin in 256 BCE. Seven years later, West Zhou was conquered by Qin. 
This period marked a big turn in Chinese history, as the dominant toolmaking material became iron by the end of the period. The Eastern Zhou period was believed to be the beginning of the Iron Age in China.
There was a considerable development in agriculture with a consecutive increase in population. There were constantly fights between vassals to scramble for lands or other resources. People started using copper coins. Education was made universal for civilians. The boundaries between the nobility and the civilians subsided. A revolutionary transformation of the society was taking place, to which the patriarchal clan system made by the Zhou Dynasty could no longer adapt. 
- — Ji Yijiu (772 BCE–720 BCE) — Ji Yuchen (770 BCE–760 BCE or 771 BCE–750 BCE) — Ji Lin (719 BCE–697 BCE) — Ji Tuo (696 BCE–682 BCE) — Ji Huqi (681 BCE–677 BCE) — Ji Lang (676 BCE–652 BCE) — Ji Zheng (651 BCE–619 BCE) — Ji Renchen (618 BCE–613 BCE) — Ji Ban (612 BCE–607 BCE) — Ji Yu (606 BCE–586 BCE) — Ji Yi (585 BCE–572 BCE) — Ji Xiexin (571 BCE–545 BCE) — Ji Gui (544 BCE–520 BCE) — Ji Meng (520 BCE) — Ji Gai (519 BCE–477 BCE) — Ji Ren (476 BCE–469 BCE) — Ji Jie (468 BCE–441 BCE) — Ji Quji (441 BCE) — Ji Shu (441 BCE) — Ji Wei (440 BCE–426 BCE) — Ji Wu (425 BCE–402 BCE) — Ji Jiao (401 BCE–376 BCE) — Ji Xi (375 BCE–369 BCE) — Ji Bian (368 BCE–321 BCE) — Ji Ding (320 BCE–315 BCE) — Ji Yan (314 BCE–256 BCE)
The period's name derives from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 and 479 BCE, which tradition associates with Confucius.
During this period, the Zhou royal authority over the various feudal states started to decline, as more and more dukes and marquesses obtained de facto regional autonomy, defying the king's court in Luoyi, and waging wars amongst themselves. The gradual partition of Jin, one of the most powerful states, marked the end of the Spring and Autumn period, and the beginning of the Warring States period.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest. Those wars resulted in the annexation of all other contender states, completed with the Qin state's victory in 221 BCE. That meant that the Qin state became the first unified Chinese empire, known as the Qin dynasty.
The composition of jade
The jade stone used since ancient times in China is nephrite, a crystalline calcium magnesium silicate, which in its pure state is white but may be green, cream, yellow, brown, gray, black, or mottled because of the presence of impurities, chiefly iron compounds. The Chinese used the generic term yu to cover a variety of related jadelike stones, including nephrite, bowenite (a type of serpentine), and jadeite. In the Neolithic Period, by the mid-4th millennium bce , jade from Lake Tai (in Jiangsu province) began to be used by southeastern culture groups, while deposits along the Liao River in the northeast (called “Xiuyan jade,” probably bowenite) were utilized by the Hongshan culture. In historical times China’s chief source of nephrite has been the riverbeds of Yarkand and Hotan in present-day Xinjiang autonomous region in northwestern China, where jade is found in the form of boulders. Since the 18th century, China has received from northern Myanmar (Upper Burma) a brilliant green jadeite (also called feicui, or “kingfisher feathers”) that is a granular sodium-aluminum silicate harder than but not quite so tough as nephrite. Having a hardness like that of steel or feldspar, jade cannot be carved or cut with metal tools but has to be laboriously drilled, ground, or sawed with an abrasive paste and rotational or repetitive-motion machinery, usually after being reduced to the form of blocks or thin slabs.
Important Chinese Eastern Zhou Dynasty Bronze Sword with Incised Script Mark 530 mm
This is a very rare decorated and scripted bronze sword from the Warring States period in ancient China.
long tapering blade hilt with two circular flanges above circular dished pommel
faceted guard is decorated.
Period: Eastern Zhou dynasty, Warring States period (475–221 B.C.)
Date:ca. 4th–3rd century B.C.
Medium: Bronze The overall patina is a deep green
Dimensions: 53 cm
Condition: good, not refurbished
Provenance: German collection part of a museum's Collections
than Austrian collection.
The division of the period from 770 BC until the unification of China through the Qin dynasty in 221 BC into Spring and Autumn Annals as well as the period of the Warring States can be traced back as far as the Han dynasty. However, this division is more of a traditional nature as no far-reaching event could be found as reason for it. This is why there have been controversial discussions in history when exactly this division is to be placed. A significant history book from the Song dynasty for instance dates the division to the year 403 BC and therefore more than 70 years later.
The period of the Warring States began after the loss of power of the king of the eastern Zhou dynasty whose princes declared themselves kings.
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As the society was going through great changes during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, there were many conflicts. Many people had their own attitudes and opinions about the changes in society. They developed their own doctrines and had many followers. Different doctrines affected and competed with each other. The main schools of thought were Confucianism set by Confucius, Taoism by Lao Zi, Mohism set by Mo Zi, and Legalism set by Han Feizi. All these schools of thought have influenced the Chinese people from generation to generation.
In agriculture, iron tools were adopted. Some tools like iron hoes and axes were widely used in farming. The use of ironware brought about marked improvement in social productivity. Agriculture was further developed due to the use of cattle in plowing. With the advancement of agriculture, handicrafts and commerce developed at the same time.
Architectural skill was superlative as well. Lu Ban, one of the founding fathers of architecture, lived in the Spring and Autumn period. The palaces that were built were grand and spectacular. Tiles and bronze decoration were used in palace building.
In communication, in order to meet the need of politics, military affairs and economy, many vassal states spared no effort in extending routes to remote areas. The Silk Road at that time traversed Eurasia. Thus, traffic developed enormously. Carriages were commonly used at this time.
Splendid accomplishments also can be seen from works in jade and lacquer. How prosperous was the Eastern Zhou!
In 771 BC, King You of Haojing was murdered by a group of invading Quanrong barbarians, supported by local rebel lords. The king's son, Ping, was made emperor, and moved the capital from Haojing (Changan County in Xian City ) to Luoyi (known today as Luoyang, Henan Province). This brought about the beginning of the Eastern Zhou dynasty, so named due to Luoyi being situated to the east of Haojing.
After moving the capital east, the Zhou royal family fell into a state of decline. King Ping was not a popular ruler, thus limiting his influence over those supposedly under his jurisdiction. At the same time, other vassals were becoming increasingly powerful, strengthening their position through defeating other rival states. In 708 BC, the then Zhou king, Huan, launched an attack against Duke Zhuang of the neighboring Zheng State over issues relating to state borders. However, Duke Zhuang led a fight back, successfully defeating King Huan's army. Although the Zhou royal family officially continued to reign, in reality it was only in name, and they were ultimately succeeded by the Qin State in 221 BC.
In Chinese history, the Eastern Zhou Dynasty is divided into two parts the Spring and Autumn Periods, between the years of 770 BC &ndash 476 BC and subsequently the Warring States Period, between 476 BC &ndash 221 BC.
Over 180 vassal states were recorded as existing during the Spring and Autumn Periods, among them the 'Five Hegemonies' are the most well-known, these being: the Duke Huan of Qi the Duke Wen of Jin King Zhuang of Chu the Duke Mu of Qin and the Duke Xiang of Song. Historians suggest that the Five Overlords include: the Duke Huan of Qi the Duke Wen of Jin King Zhuang of Chu King Fu Chai of Wu and King Gou Jian of Yue. The different states often sought to expand their territories through fighting with other vassals.
During this time, many of the states also focused on developing agricultural production as a means for strengthening legitimacy. As a result, iron farm tools and cattle ploughing were popularized, along with further developments made in the processes involved with bronze smelting, foundry industry and the mining industry.
In the latter part of the Spring and Autumn Periods, coins were also widely used. This stimulated the development of commerce, specifically that of the handicraft industry. The silk textiles of the Qi State and the lacquer wares of the Chu State particularly were famed for their high-degree of workmanship. Luban, a famous master artisan in Chinese history also lived during this period. Noted ancient texts including The Spring and Autumn Annals, The Book of Changes and Mo Tse were also produced at this time.
After the numerous wars of the Spring and Autumn Periods, the early part of the Warring States Period saw the establishment of ten states. The Qin, Wei, Han, Yan, Zhao, Qi, and Chu were considered the strongest, and were known as the 'Seven Warring States'. Great efforts were made by state leaders to make their respective region prosperous. A number of political reforms were introduced by the likes of Li Li, Wu Qi, and Shang Yang which aimed to make the state rich and strong. New approaches to economics and politics were introduced, along with further developments in social sciences and culture.
In agriculture, horse ploughing was adopted as common practice. Farmers also began to pay attention to the properties of soil and the processes involved with deep ploughing, which brought about the planting of different crops dependent on local conditions. Farmers also learned how to enrich soil with fertilizer, how to select better seeds, how to control plant diseases and pests and how to sow seeds depending on seasonal conditions.
Bronze-making methods were also further refined most pieces produced during this time were light and thin, decorated with both delicate and intricate patterns. Lacquer ware developed into its own independent industry. Pieces were made from a carved-wood base, and then coated in a variety of colored lacquers, principally black, red, yellow, blue, purple and white.
The era also brought with it significant developments in the cultural sphere. A number of written works gained widespread notoriety as a result of improved publication facilities. The famous works of Qu Yuan and Song Yu produced at this time were to strongly influence authors of subsequent generations.
In the scientific arena, outstanding astronomers such as Gan De and Shi Shen contributed heavily to the advances in agriculture through their famous writings in the Gan Shi Xingjing.
During this time, both copper and gold coins started to gain widespread use. These were cast into various shapes, including that of knives, shovels as well as the more recognizable circular shape.
It was in the Warring States Period that state leaders also began to establish a centralized autocratic system of governance. The introduction of these new institutions, systems and cultural developments saw the rise of cities such as the Qi State's Linzhi (what is today known as Zibo City in Shandong Province), the Yan State's Xiadu (Yixian County, Hebei Province), the Chu State's Ying (Jiangling County, Hubei Province) and the Zhao State's Handan (Handan City, Hebei Province).
Why were curved swords more prevalent in eastern militaries while Europeans preferred straight swords?
Never, ever, underestimate the role of fashion in sword design. Long swords were elite weapons. (“Long” here refers literally to the length, and not to any particular style of weapon.) Elite weapons were desirable because they announced your status merely by wearing them, without even fighting.
And in martial cultures, you spent a lot more time standing around wearing swords than you actually spent in combat using them. So their social utility was at least as important as their martial utility in terms of understanding why they looked the way they did.
Medieval European sword design inherited from Roman antecedents, and in particular the spatha, which was a design inspired by Celtic long swords. As a long sword, the spatha was expensive and well-suited to cavalry, so it established itself as the continental sword of the aristocracy quite easily, and the aristocratic sidearms of Europe were dominated by long, straight, double-edged blades for many centuries thereafter.
Curved swords existed side-by-side with medieval long swords for most of this time, and they were, in fact, very popular, so it is untrue that European swords, in general, were in the straight, crucifix style. But curved swords were not considered “elite” weapons. They were short, cheap, practical weapons like falchions, which drew from a long tradition of agricultural or sickle-style weapons that were associated with peasantry and commoners.
They were looked down on as status symbols, even when regarded as useful weapons. Even those who could afford horses and fancy long swords would often carry a short curved sword like a falchion with them for when things got down and dirty in the melee.
The Muslim world (as encountered by Europeans) overlapped substantially with the ancient domains of the Roman Empire, and its notions of elite swords were not dissimilar. During the Crusades, Arab swords were typically long, straight, double-edged, and single-handed.
They had a bit less of the crucifix-style hilt going on, but that’s mostly just the guard design, and that didn’t come from the Romans, anyway. So there really wasn’t much in the way of “international influence” to steer western sword design away from the straight long sword.
Until the Turks. Although curved “sickle swords” were known throughout the world, their roots in agricultural labor didn’t give them a lot of social cachets. The Turks may have been the first to lengthen the curved sword into an elite cavalry weapon, somewhere around the 8th Century. (There is also a short Turkish curved sword called a yataghan, but it did not have nearly so much influence.)
But even so, the peoples of the Asian steppes were treated as barbarians by most of the cultures and empires who encountered them, so the mere existence of a long, curved sword that was useful from horseback would not have been enough to convince western aristocrats that it was a proper badge of status.
But after the Mongols and then the Turks overran much of western Asia and established their own empires, perceptions about elite weapons began to shift. What does “elite” mean, after all, other than “associated with the ruling class”? After Turks have been running the show for a while, their weapon styles began to redefine the general conception of “aristocratic cool”. (And kicking some highly respected ass all through the region certainly didn’t hurt the reputation of their weaponry, either.)
This happened earliest in lands like Persia and India (giving us weapons like the scimitar and talwar), but it eventually came to Europe as well, with Ottoman incursions into, and rule over, eastern Europe in the 14th through 19th Centuries.
This led to the European take on the Turkish sword, which is generally known as the sabre, and is so solidly ingrained into our own cultural patterns that we hardly recognize its Turkish influences anymore.
That’s partly because the sword was popularized in Western Europe by Hussar regiments, which were modeled after the forces that drove the Turks out of Eastern Europe. Part of its popularity was that it was perceived as the weapon that defeated the Turks, when in fact the opposite was closer to the truth.
So fashionable was the new curved sabre that it became the dominant style of the western military sword during the 19th Century, and although the classic straight-bladed, double-edged sword (by then called a broadsword) did manage to survive, it mostly did so by rebranding itself as a “sabre”. (See, for example, the Patton saber, and the 1908 trooper sabre, both of which are basically rapiers masquerading as broadswords, while calling themselves sabres.)
(This post covers a lot of ground, but Swords and Hilt Weapons is a good overview of the broad historical development of the sword, with Barbarians and Christians and 17th Century Europe, both by Anthony North, covering the main influences on western sword shapes.)
Chronicles of the Eastern Zhou Kingdoms
The Chronicles of the Eastern Zhou Kingdoms is a Chinese historical novel written by Feng Menglong in the late Ming Dynasty. Set in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the novel starts from the Chinese kingdom beginning to break apart into smaller states and ends with the first unification of the land accomplished by Qin Shi Huang.
The novel is considered to possess high historical value, and also to be a greatly influential historical novel in Chinese literary history.
The novel has been translated into several languages, including Korean, Thai, and Vietnamese. The Korean version was done in 2003. The Thai version was done in 1819 by a committee of senior public officers at the behest of King Rama II. The Vietnamese version was done in 1933 by Nguyễn Dỗ Muc.
The Eastern Zhou dʒoʊ Chinese: 東周 pinyin: Dōngzhōu 770 256 BC was the second half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. It is divided into two
of influence it created continued well into Eastern Zhou for another 500 years. During the Zhou dynasty, centralized power decreased throughout the Spring
The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period 907 979 was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th - century Imperial China. Five states quickly
and the state that called itself Wu 吳 is also known as Eastern Wu 東吳 Dōng Wu or Sun Wu 孫吳 Academically, the period of the Three Kingdoms refers
The Wu Zhou Chinese: 武周 known officially as Zhou dʒoʊ Chinese: 周 also called the Southern Zhou dynasty Chinese: 南周 Second Zhou dynasty or Restored
The Records of the Three Kingdoms is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty c. 184 220 CE and the Three
suffering for his brutal actions, such as one mentioned in the Chronicles of the Eastern Zhou Kingdoms which says that an ox with two Chinese characters, Bai
prior to the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history. It was fought in the winter of AD 208 9 between the allied forces of the southern
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also known as Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period 220 280 With its capital
Chong. Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms Achilles Fang. The Sovereign of Han still wished to enter the southern territory and so hesitated. Qiao Zhou sent
Chinese: 吳 pinyin: Wu Old Chinese: ŋʷˤa was one of the states during the Western Zhou dynasty and the Spring and Autumn period. It was also known as Gouwu
time before the founding of the city, as indicated by items made of jade from Khotan found in tombs from the Shang Yin and Zhou dynasties. The jade trade
Heaven and Earth at the Battle of Jieqiao. Lists of people of the Three Kingdoms Chen, Shou 3rd century Records of the Three Kingdoms Sanguozhi de Crespigny
which grew out of the former kingdoms of Funan and Chenla, at times ruled over and or vassalised most of mainland Southeast Asia and parts of Southern China
institutions. Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms Achilles Fang. Fang Xuanling et al. Book of Jin, Volume 3, Biography of Emperor Wu Jin shu, Chronicle of Wudi states:
Three Kingdoms era of China Zhu Huan, military general of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms era of China Zhu Ju, military general of Eastern Wu during
by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi - autonomous kingdoms These kingdoms gradually
conquests, first ending the powerless Zhou dynasty, and eventually conquering the other six of the Seven Warring States. Its 15 years was the shortest major dynasty
King Ai of Zhou King An of Zhou King Cheng of Zhou King Dao of Zhou King Ding of Zhou King Gong of Zhou King Hu King Hui of Eastern Zhou King Hui of Wei King
History of Swords
The sword was called by many the “Queen of the weapons”. There is a lot of merit in this epithet as the sword, throughout the ages possessed beauty in its many forms and the art with which it has been adorned. It took a lot of skill and sophisticated knowledge to make a sword and also, it took a lot of skill and knowledge to know how to wield the sword efficiently. The sword has a very long history and throughout times it has evolved and morphed into many forms. As a result it can be classified and grouped into many groups and subgroups.
The sword is a weapon that had been developed mainly for inflicting cutting wounds although stabbing was also important (especially in Roman times and Europe). The sword is often attributed to old world civilizations and the peoples who inherited the weapon. The sword was one of the main weapons in Egypt, Africa, Chaldea, Asia, pre-Hellenic Greece, Rome and Europe. It is possible to classify the sword according to geographical spread.
It is important to note, that in this classifications some swords in the Oriental and Asiatic group and the African group originated in Egypt. The Oriental types of swords evolved to a very distinguished form compared with European swords. The metal sword failed to develop on American and Australian continents. In South and Central America there was a wooden sword (macana) used by the native cultures. The Aztecs studded the wooden sword with obsidian blades to create a cutting edge.
To classify all the swords, it takes a lot of classes to get the general view of the swords used throughout the world. Some of the swords are so eccentric that belong to their own eccentric class and they have to be mentioned separately. The typical European sword is the one with straight and pointed blade, whereas the curved sword was developed in the Middle East and Asia. It is very probable that both swords originated in Egypt. Both types of swords retained their characteristics and over time evolved into many different forms. It is possible to classify sword into the following groups:
- The two edged straight sword
- The one edged sword straight or curved
- The one edged spud ended sword
- The curved sword with expanding blade (scimitar)
- The curved pointed sword edged on the inner (concave) edge
- The Egyptian falchion
- Eccentric types (flamberge, executioner’s sword, etc.)
Swords can be also divided into single-handed group and double handed group. The double-handed sword is any sword that is requires the use of both hands. This group includes swords such as the European longswords, landsknecht flamberge, Scottish great Claymore sword, Kriegsmesser, Japanese Odachi, etc. A single-handed sword was a short sword with handle that would only accommodate grip with only one hand.
The Two Edged Straight Sword
The two edged straight sword can be further divided into two subcategories:
The leaf-shaped blade sword featured a blade that widened usually at the middle of the blade and ended in a point. The straight-shaped blade sword featured a blade that had straight edged and ended with either a point or rounded point. The leaf-shaped sword was predominant during the bronze era and it was also the predominant in many different areas among various cultures. Leaf-shaped swords were found in Spain, Italy, Greece, Egypt and even in Britain, Scandinavia and other parts of Europe. The dominance of this blade shape during the bronze era is probably due to the fact that it was easier to achieve this type of blade with bronze. It is also probable that the shape of the sword originated from successful fusion of a spearhead and a dagger. The Greek Xiphos sword is an example of a leaf-shaped sword. The average length of a leaf-shaped sword is about 22 inches however, there were specimens found that measured up to 32 inches long. The leaf-shaped sword blades were the most common during the Bronze Era however, there were also bronze swords with straight and tapered blades. The early Roman swords were also leaf-shaped. The leaf-shaped sword is the most dominant sword of the Bronze Era. The sword was excellent for cutting but also offered incredible thrusting force. The first Roman swords were leaf-shaped but with development of iron the swords evolved to straight blade. The good examples of the Roman transitional period are the swords found in Hallstadt, Austria. The straight edged, iron Roman sword was the weapon that was prevalent during most of the Empire. The Roman Gladius was about 22 inches in length during the early times. The Roman Spatha was longer and it was probably adopted from Spain or other area.
The next development in iron swords was the dawn of the “Late Celtic Period” that was characterized by swords featuring straight-edged, iron blades that tapered from the tang and finish with a rounded point. Some swords had iron or bronze handles. Swords, such as these occurred in many places in Europe. The finest of the straight swords were found in Scandinavia. These early and middle Iron Age, Scandinavian swords varied in regards to the handle, pommel and hand guard but later merged into the now famous Viking type swords. The Viking swords were an example in craftsmanship and swordsmanship. Many of them featured lavished ornaments on their guards and pommels. The handles were often incrusted with precious stones and metals. The Viking sword featured straight edged blade that tapered slightly and ended with a rounded point. The swords, on average, measured between 34 to 44 inches in length.
The straight sword pattern began to change in the 9th century. The main change was the narrower blade compared with the length of the sword. Also the hilts become longer and reminiscent of the classic cross guard. The pommel of the sword was heavier and round and often highly ornate. Some of the swords during this transition period featured some of the Viking sword features and some of the new, cruciform characteristics. This “transitional sword” continued to evolve into the knight’s sword or arming sword, which featured the classic, cruciform characteristic. The arming sword was a double-edged, single-handed sword that was very common during the Middle Ages, between 11th and 14th century. The arming sword was the standard sword carried into battles. This sword was light and had an excellent balance. The sword was designed more for cutting than thrusting. The length of the sword varied, measuring between 30 inches to 32 inches. With time, knights began to wear heavier armor and this was one of the reasons for continued evolution of the sword. Larger and longer swords were needed to deliver either blunt trauma through the armor or to pierce the armor. This led to development of the longsword.
Between 13th and 17th century the straight sword became longer as it measured between 3ft to 4’3”. Longswords featured the classic, cruciform hilts with two-handed grips that measured 10 to 15 inches in length. The blade of the longsword was double-edged and measured between 40 to 48 inches in length. The weight of the longsword was between 2.5 to 5lbs. In combat, the swords were used for thrusting, cutting and striking using all parts of the sword including the crossguards and pommel.
One of the most famous two-handed swords was the claymore sword. The word claymore is derived from the Gaelic word “claidheamh mòr” meaning “great sword”. The name claymore actually refers to two types of swords. One of the swords is the two-handed longsword and the other one refers to much shorter and single-handed basked-hilted sword. The basket-hilted claymore sword was first used in the 16th century. This type of sword is still used as a part of the ceremonial dress of the Scottish highland regiments. The two-handed highland claymore sword was used during the late Medieval Age and in the Renaissance. This longsword was used in the wars between Scottish clans and the wars with the English. The Scottish claymore had distinctive design that featured a cross-hilt with downward sloping arms. The arms of the cross-hilt often ended with four-leaf clover design. There were also other, less known, claymore swords that had a very different, clamshell hilt design. An average, two-handed claymore sword was about 55 inches in length where the blade part measured 42 inches and the hilt measured 13 inches. The weight of the claymore was about 5.5lbs.
The basket-hilt claymore sword (circa 1700) could be either single-edged or double-edged. The sword was much shorter as it was single-handed sword with blade between 30 to 35 inches in length. The weight of the sword was ranged between 2-3 pounds. The basket hilt of the sword protected the entire hand of the person wielding the sword. The basked was often lined with red velvet and often it had tassels on the hilt and pommel for decoration.
The only straight and double-edged sword that was in use in Japan is the tsurugi. The name tsurugi also referred to Chinese straight and double-edged broadswords.
A rapier is a slander and sharply pointed sword that was used for thrusting attacks. Rapiers may feature two cutting edges. The blade might be sharpened on its entire length or from the middle of the blade to the tip or completely without a cutting edge (estoc). The Rapier was very popular in Europe between 16th and 17th century. Rapiers usually featured very complex hilts that were designed to protect the wielding hand. The word rapier was not used by the Spanish, French or Italian masters but rather the terms spade, epee or espada were used.
The one edged sword had its origins in a long knife and this type of sword was first used by hunters from wild tribes. When the tribes evolved into nations, they retained their long knives as weapons. Often they were used as supplemental swords. The Teutonic Scramasax or Yataghan can be an example of such weapons. The Scramasax varied in shape and size depending on the culture and area where it was used. The length of the Scramasax ranged from 20 to 27 inches. The blade of Scramasax was rather straight however, there were some specimens found that featured a slightly curved blade. Similar, knife-like, one-edged swords were found in other areas such as Japan, Afghanistan, Greece, Persia, Turkey and some African countries. The first Japanese knife-like swords featured a narrow blade with straight back and plain tang. These swords measured up to 45 inches in length. Other, similar and famous Oriental swords were the Afghan Salawar, Yataghan and Khyber Knife. The Ghurka kukri is a similar weapon the one-edged, Kopis sword used by the Greeks. The Kopis type sword was also used by the Persians and similar swords (called Falcata) were found in Spain.
The one-edged swords can be divided further into two curved classes. The first class features a blade that has the edge on the convex side and the second class has the edge on the concave side. The first sword group is rather large as it includes Scimitar type swords and their variants, whereas the second group is rather small and much localized. The first group encompassed swords like scimitars, cutlass sword or Dacian sword. The cutlass sword was used in Europe but it has been designed based on scimitar. The cutlass sword was developed in Bohemia in the 15th century. The sword’s blade and the handle were made of one piece of metal. The grip of the cutlass sword was either an iron ring or the slit in the blade. The Dacian sword was a long sword with thin and curved blade. The second group included swords such as the Greek Kopis, Falcata and Khyber Knife swords.
The scimitar is the typical sword of the East and especially Islam, whereas the typical straight sword with its cruciform shape was typical of the European, Christian culture. The name Scimitar came from the Persian word “shamshir”. The Indo-Chinese races used also curved swords. The Parang sword used in the countries such as India, Malaysia, Borneo, Burma and Nepal, featured a blade that was thin at the handle and which widened toward the end. The sword was used for chopping in agricultural operation and also in warfare. Another sword used in Indo-China was the dao sword. The sword was about 18 inches in length and it was narrow at the haft and square and wide at the top. The sword’s blade was sharpened at one edge and the handle was set in wooden or ebony handle. The dao sword was heavy and was able to deliver heavy blows. Another interesting curved sword is the Egyptian Khopesh sword. This weapon is illustrated on many Egyptian monuments and walls and according to the illustrations it was used by all the Egyptian warriors including the Pharaoh. The sword’s blade is curved and it is still not clear whether it was edged on concave or convex side however, it is more likely that it was edged on the convex side. The very thin handle of the swords ends in a pommel. The Khopesh sword was about 18 inches in length.
Another interesting sword was the German Kriegsmesser sword. The Kriegsmesser was a large, two-handed, one-edged sword that was slightly curved. The Kriegsmesser simply looked like an oversized knife. The sword has its origins in the European Seax knife and the Falchion. The Falchion failed with its popularity in Germany and the big, knife-like sword developed on its own. The name of the sword, Kriegsmesser, means literally “war knife”. The sword really deserves this name as the hilt of the sword looks like an oversized knife handle. The pommel of the sword usually was curved to one side. The handle was made of two pieces of wood or bone, with full tang between them. The guard of the sword frequently was made of steel ring or plate or cruciform crossguard.
The Japanese swords also belong to the one edged sword group. Tsurugi sword was the only exception. The Japanese swords were usually two-handed and featured a slightly curved blade with one edge. The blade ended in a point. The swords were fitted with an ornamental hand guard called tsuba. The blade of the sword was very rigid and the edge of the blade was very sharp. The Japanese swords were grouped according to sword-making method and size. The most popular sword was the katana which was worn the Japanese samurai class. Wakizashi was the shorter version of the katana sword. Odachi and Nodachi swords were also single-edged swords but they predate the katana and wakizashi swords.
Another single-edged sword is the sabre. The sabre usually features a slightly curved blade and a large hand-guard that protect the knuckles of the hand, thumb and forefinger. Most of the sabres had curved blades but there are also sabres with straight blade that were more suitable for thrusting. The straight sabres were usually used by the heavy cavalry. These sabres would also feature double-edged blades. The origin of the sabre is well known. It is said that the sabre appeared for the first time in Hungary in 10th century. The sabre may have its design influenced by either European falchion or the Middle-Eastern scimitar. The sabre was very popular in the 19th century and it was effectively used by heavy cavalry, especially during the Napoleonic Wars. However, with the advent of the firearms the weapon faded by the mid-century.
Executioner’s sword can be classified as an eccentric sword as this sword was not meant for combat but rather for decapitation of condemned criminals. Executioner’s sword was double-handed and featured a very wide and straight blade that ended that did not taper towards the end. These types of swords were in wide use in the 17th century.
Another eccentric sword is the landsknecht flamberge sword. It is eccentric due to its size and the shape of the blade. The sword was simply huge as its overall length was over 6ft. The blade of the sword had a characteristic wavy shape that resembled flame. The name of the sword “flamberge” comes from the words “flammard” and “flambard” meaning “flame blade”. The landsknecht flamberge sword was used in the 16th century by the German mercenaries called Landsknechts. The flame-shaped blades were very effective against wooden pikes and halberds because the shape of the blade provided more cutting surface while reducing the mass of the sword.
The sword consists of the sword blade and the hilt. The blade of the sword is used for cutting, thrusting and striking. The blade can be either double edged or single edged. Sometimes the single edged blade can have secondary edge near the very tip of the blade. The blade is divided into two parts called “forte” and “foible”. The “forte” (strong) part is between the center of balance and the hilt. The “foible” (weak) part is between center of percussion and the tip of the blade (point). The section between the center of percussion and the center of balance is called the middle. To make the blades lighter and at the same time more rigid, the blade may have grooves along the blade. Such grooves were called fullers or sometimes blood groves. The ricasso is the short section between the sharpened portion of the blade and the hilt. The ricasso is unsharpened and its length depends on the length of the sword. On some large swords, such as the Landknecht Flamberge the ricasso part may be significant to allow additional hand grip. Some swords don’t have ricasso at all.
The hilt is the upper part of the sword that allows wielding of the weapon. The hilt consists of the grip, the guard and the pommel. The pommel acts as a counterweight to the blade and allows balancing the sword thus improving the ability to wield the sword. The pommel also can be used for blunt strikes at a very close range. Pommels can come in variety of shapes including, globular, circular, semicircular, disc and rectangular. Pommels may be plain or be adorned with ornate designs or inlayed with jewels and gemstones. The crossguard prevents en enemy’s blade from sliding down onto the hands of the sword wielder. The guard may have various forms and the most common form of the sword guard is the cruciform that was prevalent in the Middle Ages. The sword’s cross guard may also be knows as quillons.
The tang is part of the hilt however, it is also a part of the blade. In traditional sword making the tang was made from the same piece of metal. The tang goes through the grip and the grip is most often made from two pieces of wood bound together by rivets and wrapped with leather, leather cord or metal wire. The Japanese swordmakers used shark skin to wrap the handles in their bladed weapons. The term “full tang” usually refers to the tang made from the same piece of metal as the blade. The term “rat-tail tang” that is often used in present and commercial sword making refers to tang that has been welded to the blade.
A scabbard is the protective sheath for the swords’ blade. The scabbard protected the blade from the elements, namely rain, snow or moisture. Various materials were used for making scabbards including wood, leather, steel or brass. Usually the scabbard had two metal fittings on both ends. The portion where the blade entered was called the throat and the portion at the end of the scabbard, meant to protect the tip of the blade was called chape. A sword belt was a belt that was used to attach the sword to carry it on a person. The sword could be attached to a person’s waist or sometimes on back and it was designed to make it easy to quickly draw the sword from the scabbard. A baldric is a belt that is worn over one shoulder. The advantage of the baldric was that it didn’t restrict any movement of the arms and offered more support for the carried sword.
Sometimes swords may feature tassels or swords knots. The tassel is woven material, leather or silk lace that is attached to the hilt of the sword and looped around the hand of the person wielding the sword. This prevented the sword or sabre from being dropped. Tassels have also very decorative design.
The Japanese swords being constructed differently have different terminology and classification.The Japanese katana sword consists of the blade and mountings. The classic and authentic Japanese swords are made of special steel called Tamahagane meaning “jewel steel”. The tamahagane steel consists of layers of high carbon and low carbon steel that are forged together multiple times. The high carbon steel has different characteristics compared with low carbon steel. The high carbon steel is harder and therefore it can hold a sharper edge. The same steel is also very brittle. On the other hand, the low carbon steel is more malleable that is able to withstand impacts without breaking. By combining the both, Japanese swordmakers were able to achieve a superior sword blade. The steel layers are heated, folded and hammered together. Such process is repeated multiple times (up to 16 times). Some sword makers use different pieces of steel for the core, the edge and the sides. The slight curve of the sword is achieved by quenching the steel. Before the quenching process the blade is covered with a layer of clay. The clay is applied very lightly over the edge intended for cutting whereas the core and the back of the blade are covered by a thicker layer. The blade is heated again and submerged in water. The quenching process causes the blade to curve slightly. This is due to the difference in hardness (and crystalline structure of the steel) between the edge and the core and back side of the blade. The edge of the blade is much harder whereas the core and the back are softer. The quenching process also creates the distinct wavy line along the blade called hamon. The most prominent part of the blade is the middle ridge called shinogi. The point of the blade is called kissaki. The kissaki has a curved profile and it is separated from the rest of the blade by a straight line called yokote. The tang of the sword is called nakago. This is also the part that bares the signature (mei) of the sword-maker. The tang has a hole called mekugi-ana that is used to mount handle (tsuka). The handle is mounted to the tang by a bamboo pin called mekugi. The handguard of the Japanese sword is called tsuba and often times it is intricately designed. Tusba may come in various shapes (round, oval or square). The decorative grip swells are called menuki. The habaki is the piece metal (usually copper) that envelopes the base of the blade near the tsuba. The purpose of habaki is to provide tight fit in the scabbard (saya) and to lock the handguard (tsuba) in place. The scabbard of the Japanese sword is made of light wood. The outer surface of the scabbard is often lacquered.
Japanese swords are also classified according to their lengths. The unit of measurement is shaku where one shaku is about 13 inches. The Japanese blade lengths are classified into three groups.
- 1 shaku or less for tanto (knife)
- 1-2 shaku for Shoto – short sword (wakizashi)
- 2 shaku and more for Daito – long sword (katana)
- 3 shaku and more (Odachi or Nodachi)
Swords with blades longer than 3 shaku were carried across the back. They were called Odachi meaning “great sword” or Nodachi meaning “field sword”. Both swords were in use before the katana sword became popular.
The Eastern Zhou Dynasty and Its Culturally Significant Contributions to Society
At around 770 BCE, the capital of the Zhou Kingdom was moved from Haojing to Luoyi, marking the start of the Eastern Zhou dynasty. This lasted for 515 years with 25 kings ruling.
The Eastern Zhou dynasty was again split into two periods. The Spring and Autumn period went on from 771 to 476 BCE and marked the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty. The Warring States period was from 475 to 221 BCE.
The beginning of the decline
As mentioned in the last Zhou Dynasty article, the move to the east caused a state of decline for the Zhou dynasty. Rumors of King Ping of Zhou killing his father caused a significant decrease in his popularity as well.
The Spring and Autumn period saw more noblemen obtain regional autonomy and waging wars against themselves. Vassals gained power through defeating rival states, which also increased invasions from other countries. The King of Zhou was losing control over the country, so he would have to turn to those same vassals for help.
The Warring States period turned the King of Zhou into a figurehead as his power was no longer recognized by the people. At the time of King Nan of Zhou, circa 314 BCE, the kings of Zhou had lost almost all of their military power, too. Even the remaining crown land was split into two states led by the feudal lords: East Zhou and West Zhou.
King Nan was able to preserve his weakened dynasty through diplomacy and conspiracies for almost sixty years until his deposition and death by Qin in 256 BCE. Seven years later, the West Zhou state was conquered by Qin.
Photo courtesy of Unsplash
Landmark contributions to society
The Zhou Dynasty, both Western and Eastern, was one of the most culturally significant in any of China’s history. They developed the Shang concept of the Mandate of Heaven, the belief that the monarch and ruling houses were divinely appointed.
The foundation for many significant developments in the Zhou dynasty was laid by the previous dynasty, the Shang Dynasty. From there, agriculture, education, military organization, Chinese literature, music, philosophical schools of thought (Confucian, Taoist, Mohist, and Legalist), and social stratification, as well as political and religious innovations, were among the things the Zhou Dynasty is credited with developing.
Moreover, the world renowned book, The Art of War by Sun-Tzu, was written during the Warring States Period. Even the use of cavalry and chariots in Chinese warfare were developed during this dynastic rule.
In case you missed it, you can read about the first Chinese dynasty here, as well as what came before the first dynasty here.
Immortals Fenyx Rising Myths of the Eastern Realm Bu Zhou Collectibles Locations
There are a total of 47 collectibles found in Bu Zhou region in the form of Chests, Xi Rang, Myth Challenges, and Gateways in Myths of the Eastern Realm DLC of Immortals Fenyx Rising. You can read about the collectibles and how to get them from below:
Guarded Chest #1
Starting from the top right of the Bu Zhou region, there is a chest that is being guarded by the enemies. Defeat the monsters and loot the chest to get your first collectible.
Xi Rang #1
The second collectible is right below the first one on the map. Get to the location on the map and look for a broken Gong Gong’s Waterwheel. The Xi Rang is on top of that waterwheel.
Myth Challenge Bagua #1
To get this collectible, you need to complete a puzzle right below the Waterwheel where you got the Xi Rang collectible.
You need to place the balls in the same order as shown on the wall. Gather all of the balls and place them in the required order to complete the puzzle.
Epic Chest #1
This chest is on the top left of the Bu Zhou region. Get to the location and remove the planks blocking you from going down. Go through the lasers and traps to get the block. Place the block on the platform to get access to the chest.
Xi Rang #2
This Xi Rang can be found at the Fortress of the Unyielding. Get on top of the Fortress and you will find the collectible there. Collect it to get your fifth collectible and second Xi Rang.
Myth Challenge Musical #1
At the Fortress of the Unyielding, you will find this puzzle to get the collectible. For this puzzle, you need to change the direction of the wind towards the bells and hit the bells in the order they are placed.
The music from the bell will open the portal. Interact with the portal to get the collectible.
Right under the Fortress of the Unyielding on the map. You will find this chest where there is a small village burnt to ashes.
From the Fortress of the Unyielding, go towards the left edge of the map to find this chest. It is placed right on the edge of the map, under a structure.
Xi Rang #3
On the left side of the canal that is separating the two sides, you will find this Xi Rang on top of the hut at the location on the map.
Tutelage of the Black Emperor Gateway
The first gateway is on the right side of the canal. Fast travel to the Gateway and enter inside. You need to defeat all of the monsters while being airborne to get this objective done.
Once the monsters have been defeated, enter the castle to get the collectible.
Xi Rang #4
On top of the gateway on the map is your fourth Xi Rang. Head to that location and you will find the Xi Rang between the destroyed bridge in the water.
Epic Chest #2
Head to the right side of the area from the gateway on the map. You will find a puzzle where you have to place the ball on the platform. Shoot the targets to move the platforms up and down and place the ball on the platform.
The epic chest will unlock, and you can loot it to get the collectible.
Xi Rang #5
For the next three collectibles, head towards the Zhu Rong Hall on the right side of the Bu Zhou region. Once here, get on top of the defense tower beside the hall.
You will find the Xi Rang placed on that tower.
Enter the hall and jump to the second floor of the building to find the third chest.
Myth Challenge Musical #2
You can find this puzzle in the Zhu Rong Hall. For this, you need to activate the bells and shoot them in an order to open the portal.
Go outside towards the lever and activate it to open the bell on the left. Shoot it and interact with the lever again to open the bell on the right. Shoot the bell and then the one on the top.
The last bell is inside the hall room. Shoot it to open the portal and get the collectible.
Xi Rang #6
Open the map and go towards the Xi Rang below the Zhu Rong Hall. Once at the location, the Xi Rang will be out in the open.
Epic Chest #3
Head towards the bridge that is connecting the island. Once you get on the island, move downwards from the bridge as you can see on the map.
The chest is locked on top of the house and you need to unlock it using the boxes and the ball. Move the ball towards the platform in the center of the room to unlock the chest.
Loot the chest to get the collectible.
Xi Rang #7
On the island that contains the broken bridge between the two regions is the Xi Rang. Look for a tall tower-like structure. The Xi Rang is placed on top of that tower.
Climb the tower to get the Xi Rang collectible.
Myth Challenge Sunchaser #1
For this challenge, you need to follow the golden bird through the lasers and gather the blue balls of light. When you reach the end, a portal will open, and you will get the collectible.
On this island, head towards the location shown on the map. You will find the chest there.
Xi Rang #8
On the same island shown in the screenshot above, head towards the blue crystal marker. You will find this Xi Rang near the structure.
Make your way towards the location shown in the picture above. The chest is on the Bu Zhou Perimeter inside a locked room. Get the two boxes from the other rooms and place them on the platform.
The doors to the chest will unlock and you can loot the chest now.
Myth Challenge Sunchaser #2
Right beside the location of the chest as mentioned above is the Myth Challenge. It is the same as the previous one where you have to chase the golden bird and collect blue globes of light.
Xi Rang #9
From the Myth Challenge as mentioned in the previous collectible, head towards the left side. You will find the Xi Rang on top of what looks like a bridge.
Epic Chest #4
Right on top of the Bu Zhou Perimeter on the map is the Epic Chest #4. Head towards that location to find the locked chest. You need to use the big two boxes and the ball to unlock the chest.
Take the ball through the platforms with help of boxes and place it on the platform right in front of the chest to unlock it.
Head towards the location shown above on the map to find your sixth chest and loot it to get the collectible.
Xi Rang #10
Using the map shown above, head towards the Watchtower at the Gates and get on top of it. The Xi Rang is on that watchtower.
On the same level where you found the Xi Rang, go around and enter the room. The chest is inside that room.
Epic Chest #5
Go up from the watchtower and towards the Epic Chest shown on the map. You need to get all of the boxes on the platforms and unlock the doors to open the chest.
Get the required boxes and solve the puzzle to unlock the chest.
Epic Chest #6
Head towards the marked location to find the locked chest. Get the cubes on the platforms to unlock the chest and get the rewards.
Li Quells the Horizon Gateway
Make your way towards the left of where the chest was. Enter in the gateway and go forward through the openings in the wall. Try not to get hit by the lasers and shoot the targets on your way.
When you reach the room with the chest, stand on the platform to activate the trap. Keep gliding in the air with the help of hooks and wait for the trap to end.
Once the trap has been beaten, go to the chest and loot it.
Xi Rang #11
Right below the gateway is the next Xi Rang. Head to the location and look for a big rock. The Xi Rang is on top of that rock.
Xi Rang #12
Enter the Hall of the Yan Di Clan and go to the top of the castle. The Xi Rang will be on the roof of the castle.
Myth Challenge Bagua #2
This challenge is inside the same location and works the same way as the previous one. You need to place the balls in the same order as shown on the wall right in front of the puzzle.
Gather the blue shiny balls and place them in the required order to get the portal open.
Xi Rang #13
Head towards the right side of the castle to find this Xi Rang. It is on top of one of the defense towers of the castle.
This chest is right on top of the southern borders of the castle. Get on the tower to get this chest.
Guarded Chest #2
Move south from the castle to find this chest laying in the forest and being guarded by monsters. Defeat the monsters to get to the chest and loot it.
Xi Rang #14
Move further south from the forest to find the Xiang Liu’s Memorial. One of the Xi Rang is on top of the large tower-like structure.
Myth Challenge Mural #1
This challenge is in the memorial and requires some thinking to complete. You need to connect all of the fans using the wind. This will unlock the puzzle on the wall.
Shoot the blocks to reveal the pictures and form a portrait. Once the puzzles have been completed, a portal will open, and the challenge will be completed.
Head out of the memorial and go towards the right side. The chest is inside the big room on top.
The next chest is near to the previous one. Head towards the chest and use the cubes to open the door to get through. Loot the chest and get going.
Guarded Chest #3
Right below the previous chest, you can find the guarded chest on the map. Head to that location and defeat the two beasts who are guarding the chest. Collect the rewards from the chest.
Guarded Chest #4
Head to the location shown in the picture and defeat the monsters guarding the chest. Interact with the chest to get the loot.
Epic Chest #6
Using the picture above, head down southwards to where the epic chest marker is. You need to activate the puzzle using the lever. Block the lasers and place the small cubes on the platforms.
The chest will unlock, and you can loot it.
Xi Rang #14
The Xi Rang is to the right of the epic chest. Head towards the marker and look for two big arrows shot in the ground. The Xi Rang is on top of the hill near the big arrows.
Epic Chest #7
Make your way towards the epic chest on the right side of where you are. Head towards the location and solve the puzzle.
Using the fans and cubes, you need to unlock the chest. Connect all of the fans with each other with the flow of air and use the cubes to unlock the doors.
Once the chest is unlocked, interact with it to get the loot.
Myth Challenge Mural #2
The final collectible of this region is found in the same area. Get to the marker and interact with the button to activate the puzzle.
You need to shoot the blocks on the wall to form a portrait. Connect all of the boxes together and the portal will open. Interact with the portal to get the last Myth of the Eastern Realm collectible from Bu Zhou region.